Sociology Test Notes

Sociology Test Notes

xTotal institution has its own version of each of the social institutions. We said that prisons and military are examples De-colonization = breaking down what was learned previously re-colonization = learning what is need in new circumstances these occur in a total institution, because total institutions have ways of doing things that differ from the outside world. Mead? S ideas on formation of self: The self is composed of 2 parts the I and the me. = the individual part of self Me = the social part of self Self-concept -? sum total of who an individual believes herself or himself to be

Self-esteem = evaluation of self. It can and does fluctuate for most people Both self- concept and self- esteem are formed through the process of social interaction coking-glass self (Charles H. Cooley) and Generalized other (George H. Mead) are related concepts. Looking-glass self is the micro level concept and generalized other is the macro level concept. Looking-glass self an individual? S perception of how others see him or her. Occurs in face to face interaction, so micro level Generalized other = an individual seeing himself or herself through the eyes of society (norms)

Id, ego, superego are Freud? S version of parts of the self. He also believed that colonization is the key to formation Of self. Old instinct Ego = mediator Superego = conscience Primary group members are significant others. They may be parents, other family members, close friends. They are usually informal control agents in our lives. Secondary group is made up of more casual relationships. They are less intense and less important than those of our primary group. Family forms: extended more than one generation, includes mom, dad, children, grandparents, grandchildren, aunts, uncles, cousins, etc. Clear -?mom, dad and children single-parent only one parent, either mom or dad who lives with and cares fro children blended = man and woman who come together with children from previous relationships. They may also have children together. Peers People who share the same characteristic Very often based on age. Teens are a peer group. Can also be based on other things, for example profession. Doctors are a peer group. Peer pressure Strongest in teen years Roles = parts we play in life role-taking = mentally trying on a role. For example, if I were a doctor, how would interact with patients?

Role-taking can also mean trying to see a situation through the eyes of persons who play a particular role. For example, why does my teacher seem so grumpy when the class is a little bit noisy? How does our noise affect him and his ability to teach? What would do in a similar situation? Role-identity = the way you see yourself in a role that you have. I am a good parent. I am an excellent student. I am a responsible friend. Role conflict = 2 or more roles pull you in different direction. Example, my children need help with their homework, but I have to stay late at work. Ole strain -? only one role is involved. Example, a student is under lots of stress because he. She has 3 tests on the same day. Role exits = leaving a role that you have had for a while. Retirement and graduations are examples. People sometimes experience depression when they leave a role. Status = ranking Ascribed = given Achieved earned Particularistic = achievement based on who you know Universalism = achievement based On credentials = earned Master status = the status that society tends to focus on. Always associated with a role that we have in society.

In the US, we very often focus on employment status, but a negative status like that associated with criminality an sometimes overtake even the higher ranking statuses in society. In class we gave the example of a doctor who has been convicted of a sex offense. Stigma -? a negative attachment to identity Deviance: outside the norm, varies in how far outside the norm Marginality = social distance, does society welcome you in or push you away. Varies with level of deviance. Self-fulfilling prophecy = if you are told something about yourself often enough, sometimes you will begin to act the part.

Example: women are bad at math. Girls believe the myth, develop a fear of math and don? T even try. Identity negotiation (establishing identity in relation to others) Identity work involves managing existing identities social network those that we interact with at various levels Category = common characteristic Aggregate same place and same point in time. Little to no interaction Group = interaction is necessary. Group members share a common aim or goal Cohesive group = a group in which members identify with one another. They often have similar views on social issues. Decision making often comes easy to a cohesive group.

Cooperation and consensus (agreement) are characteristic of cohesive groups. CAUTION! Beware of group think!! Conflict oriented group= a group in which members often disagree on important social issues. Cooperation and consensus can be very difficult to achieve. Corruption = (Irving Janis 1 972) a condition in which the decision to be made is LESS important than maintaining relationships with fellow group members and with the group leader. Group think is a danger in cohesive groups, especially when group members have long-term positive relationships with one another. In group think, members don? Voice their disagreement, because they don? T want to jeopardize relationships with others in the roof. To counter corruption, introduce into the group the idea of critical evaluation. It is K to bring into the group information from experts who disagree with the view that is dominant within the group. Leader should not make his or her opinion known in the beginning of discussion. Should encourage variation in ideas. Http://www. Crispy. Org/about/pubs_resources/ corruption overviewhtHTMLorm of reciprocity Within the context of group dynamics, when one person rescues another, the rescuer can expect the same if he or she is in trouble.

Example: Students are trying to solve a parking problem on campus. Whenever Marie suggests a solution, Linda says it is a bad idea. After Linda makes some cruel statements about Marie? s Sdeas, Jason feels compelled to defend Marie. The next time Jason has an idea, Linda strongly disagrees with him. What will Marie do? Based on the norm of reciprocity, Marie will feel obligated to defend Jason and Jason will expect her to defend him. One of my former students described this as ? paPaybackn a good way.? McNationalizationGeorge RiRitzier993 ? The McNationalizationf Society? ) Rationality to the extreme.

Aim is top notch efficiency and effectiveness. Cost is individuality, creativity, etc. Examples: assembly line production, chain restaurants (menu sameness) and hotels (rooms look alike), manufactured housing. Positive = you know what to expect, lowered cost, more affordability. Negative = boredom, extreme sameness Mass-media Reaches large audiences. What new ways to we have to reach audiences now? Compare to 1940? s,S1950? s.SWhat is bureaucratic structure? A hierarchical structure (pyramidal shape), rules, movement is based on universalistic principles. It is most closely associated with which sociologist? Max Weber.

Bureaucracy is not perfect, but may be used to counter paparticularisticCan you give an example from your own life? Is it a stratified system? Yes. Power increases as you move toward the top of the pyramid. The aim of bureaucracy is fairness how is that accomplished? Simple and complex organizations. Give examples of each Simple very few layers, simple power structure Family is a good example. Parents are in charge, make rules, children are expected to follow rules, parents sometimes allow input. Small businesses are another example. Complex lots of layers. Complex power structure. Complex way to move through the structure.

Formal rules and regulations. Formal procedures for dealing with problems and issues. Example = bureaucratic structure What about military? Meritocracy is most closely associated with which sociologist? DuDruthersescribe and give an example. Pyramidal in shape. Focus is on talent and willingness to work. If you have the talent and are willing to work, you should be able to move up through the structure of society, especially if your talent is needed and/or rare in society. Example, if you have the talent to be a surgeon and are willing to work hard to become qualified, then society should recognize you with pay and high status.

Please follow and like us:
Haven’t found the essay you want?