Sociology study guide: Gender Status

Sociology study guide: Gender Status

Heterosexuality- attraction to another sex Homosexuality- attraction to same sex Bisexual- attraction to both sexes Asexual- no sexual attraction Gender Identity- Perception of your gender. 2) Know sociological perspectives on abortion, rape, pornography and prostitution. Abortion- The expulsion of an embryo of fetus from uterus. 55% of Americans support abortions, but with some limits. Believe it should be illegal in all circumstances. 24% believe it should always be legal. Abortion rates remain controversial. Rape (penetration without consent) Pornography- The graphic depiction of images that causes sexual arousal.

Prostitution, Selling sex for money. 3) Know stigma and the types of labeling. Stigma- (Changes how you see someone. ) According to Coffman, a stigma is a powerfully negative social label that radically changes a person’s self-concept and social identity, operating as a master status. Degradation Ceremony- Formal application of stigma Retrospective Labeling- (in the past) looking back on past; re-processing the stigmatize person’s past behavior based on their stigma. Projective Labeling- (the future) looking into the future; assuming the stigmatize person will continue to perform deviant acts in the future. Know the difference between deviance and crime and about metallization of deviance. Deviance- Is behavior that violates expected rules or norms. Crime- Is a violation of societal norms and rules written into public laws. Metallization of Deviance- Transformation of moral and legal issues into a medical conditions Affects who responds Affects how people respond Affects ideas of personal competence 5) Understand the facets of Hirsch control theory, Deuterium’s concept of anomie, Marten’s strain theory and Sutherland differential association.

Hirsch Control Theory- Social control depends on imagining the uniqueness of one’s behavior. Moron’s Strain Theory- Strain theory suggests that people engage in deviance when there IS a conflict between goals and means. Sutherland Differential Association theory- Links deviance to how much others encourage or discourage such behavior. 6) Understand how the reasons for punishment differ as well as the types of crime. Crime White Collar Crime- Illegal activities committed by high status people in the course of their occupation.

Occupational Crimes- Individuals in the course of their work. Corporate Crimes- Executive to benefit themselves and their companies. Cyber Crime- Conducted online Punishment Retribution- An act of morale vengeance by which society makes offenders suffer as much as the suffering caused by the crime. Deterrence (swift, severe, certain) – The attempt to discourage criminality through the use of punishment. Rehabilitation (punish people in order to fix them) – A program for reforming the offender to prevent later offenses.

Social Protection (protected society) – Rendering an offender incapable of further offenses temporarily through imprisonment. 7) Understand both social stratification in the US and global stratification. Social Stratification (How we rank people) – A hierarchical ranking of people who have different access to valued resources. Global Stratification- Patterns of social inequality in the world as a whole. 8) Know how the concept of socioeconomic Status works. Socioeconomic Status- an overall rank of people’s positive based on their income, education, and occupation. ) Know the differences between a closed stratification system and an open stratification system. Closed Stratification- Movement from one social position to another is limited due to ascribed statues. Open Stratification- Social classes are relativity fluid. 0) Understand the social classes discussed in lecture as well as the difference between relative and absolute poverty. Relative Poverty- The lack of resources of some people in relation to those who have more. Absolute Poverty- A lack of resources that is life-threatening. Per Classes Upper-upper class- enormous wealth, inertial fortunes, considerable economic and political power. Must be born into class. Lower-upper class- nouveau richer (new money), engage in conspicuous consumption. Earned money in their lives. Q Upper-middle class- live on earned income, professional and managerial occupations. Lawyers, doctor, Coo’s) Middle Classes Lower-Middle class- non-manual, semi-professional occupations, rely on two incomes, maintain comfortable life-styles. Working Class- skilled and semi- skilled laborers, passes high school education. High school, associate degree) Lower Classes Working poor- work at least 27 weeks a year but live in poverty. (paycheck to paycheck) Underclass- persistently poor, segregated residential, relatively isolated, chronically unemployed, lack skills and education. 1 1) Know about the types of slavery and how to identify high-, middle- and low-income countries. Slavery-In slavery, some people own others and have control over other lives. Chattel Slavery- own a human being Domestic Slavery- economic enslavement (job) Debt Bondage- Paid so little and in debt so bad cannot leave.

Child slavery- parents let children do what they can to survive. Servile forms of marriage- Women are not values, sold into marriage, no choice. Human trafficking- moving people from one place to another. High Income Countries (have access to technology) 25% of Earth’s land Northern Hemisphere Significant culture differences All produce enough economic good to enable people to leave comfortable ivies People enjoy 79% of world’s total income. Middle Income Countries Industrial Jobs are common. 1 ‘3rd of people live in rural areas.

Poor lack access to school, medical care, adequate housing, and safe drinking water. Former Soviet Union and Eastern Europe. Low Income Coo entries Societies are agrarian and sever poverty Follow cultural traditions Limited industrial technology People’s lives are shaped by hunger, disease, and unsafe housing. -?Poverty correlates with crime. Production is “Capital Intensive” – based on factories, big machinery, and advanced 12) Understand how modernization theory and dependency theory differ. Modernization Theory suggests that low-income countries lack modern, progressive culture.

Dependency Theory (poor countries are exploited by rich countries) contend that low income countries are exploited and dominated by high income countries. 13) Understand the Davis-Moore thesis and the concept of meritocracy. Davis-Moore thesis- Social Stratification has beneficial consequences for the operation of a society. Meritocracy- Social stratification based on personal merit. 14) Know the difference between colonialism and neocolonialism Colonialism- When one country takes over the governess of a country. Taking over political power.

Neocolonialism- Multinational aspirations take over a country, direct political control, but economic exploitation. Understand gender stratification and the application of gender roles. Gender Stratification- Unequal distribution of wealth, power, and privilege between men and women. Gender Roles- Characteristics, attitudes, feelings, and behaviors that society expects of females and males. Know sexism and the types of sexual harassment. Sexism- An attitude or behavior that discriminates against one sex, usually women, based on assumed superiority of the sex. Sexual Harassment-

Comments, gestures, or physical contacts of a sexual nature that are deliberate, repeated, and unwelcome. Quid Pro Quo- (obvious and direct) Supervisor may ask for sexual favors from an employee and make threats if the advances are refused. Hostile Environment- unwelcome sexual attention of subtle behavior- sexual teasing, off-color jokes, comments about some ones looks. ( may or may not be intended to harass anyone. Understand how sociologists view race differently from the general population. Race- A group of people who share physical characteristics that their society considers important Race is a social Construct

No such thing as a “pure” race Understand the differences between race and ethnicity and between prejudice (including the theories for where prejudice comes from) and discrimination. Race (Perception of Biology) – A group of people who share physical characteristics that their society considers important. Ethnicity (Perception of Culture) – Ethnicity is shared cultural heritage. Language, geographic roots, food, customs, traditions, religion Social Construct Changes over time More Variable than race Prejudice- Is a rigid and unfair generalization about a category of people.

Know the concept of minority and how institutional discrimination and individual discrimination differ. Minority- A group of people who may be subject to differential and unequal treatment because of physical, culture, or other characteristics. Institutional Discrimination- Is bias built into the operation of society’s institutions, including schools, hospitals, the police, and the workplace. Know Pegboard’s social distance scale. Understand the different patterns of interaction between dominant and minority groups. Genocide, internal colonialism, segregation, assimilation and pluralism.

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