E. G. Personality system

E. G. Personality system

E. G. Personality system- connected to the social system through the social role. Social roles are learned expectations of how to behave in a given situation and over time these roles become institutionalized in the social System, passed on through solicitation (internalizing norms) and social control (conform= rewards, deviate= punished). Collective conscience= social order. Social order is only possible if they agree on a value consensus (acts as a glue to hold society together). He links the social structure to social action and suggests that people can choose their own course of action.

Pattern variables- represent range of dilemmas people encounter in social action (differences may occur according to the type of society e. G. Traditional vs. modern). Differences between the norms of traditional + modern societies Traditional societies (pattern variable A) Modern societies (pattern variable B) Ascription -? Status is based on fixed characteristics such as gender Achievement – status is based on performance such as effort in education Diffuseness – Relationships are broad with a range of purposes Specifics – Relationships are narrow and limited to specific purposes Particularistic

Norms emphasis treating different people differently Universalism – Norms emphasis everyone being treated the same Affectively – Immediate gratification of desires Affective neutrality – Deferred gratification Collective Orientation- Putting the groups interests first Self orientation – individualism , pursuing ones own self – interests GAIL Model Systems needs: Goal attainment – goals are set and resources are allocated to achieve them; political sub-system e. G. Reliant Adaptation – meet material needs; economic sub-system Integration – different parts of society must be integrated to pursue shared oils; sub-system Of religion, education and media Latency – maintain society overtime; kinship sub-system via pattern maintenance- socializes individuals to perform roles that society requires, tension management- place release stress after work instrumental problems- setting and achieving social goals for survival of basic needs IL= expressive problems- maintaining efficient cooperation and social stability to manage conflicts and tensions between individuals.

Social change Structural differentiation- change of societies as simple structures evolve into highly complex structures. E. G. In traditional society the kinship system performs many functions-political leadership (G), production and consumption (A), performs religious functions (l) and socializes members (L). Moving equilibrium- change in one part causes a knock-on effect to other parts. Morton: Reveals hidden connections between social phenomena= Hopi Indians performed a rain dance at times of drought-> manifest function (intended) but is unlikely to achieve intended goal.

Yet the ritual may have a latent function (unintended) e. G. Producing sense of solidarity Evaluation: Choice through pattern variables but expected social roles determine how we should act. Giddiness- deterministic as it explains how society reproduces itself through solicitation into roles but fails to explain how individuals produce roles and sees people passively acquire roles and behave in line with cultural expectations- ignores we may creatively bend roles.

Parson’s work doesn’t offer empirical research to his classification system at the expense of unpacking the subtle detail of everyday social interaction. Morton-Parsons assumes everything in society is functionally indispensable in its existing arm; untested assumption and Morton points out functional alternatives, also complex societies have many parts which are distantly related (functional autonomy). Also assumes everything in society performs positive functions yet some may be function for some but dysfunctional for others e. G. Conflicts of interests for some groups.

External critiques of functionalism: Logical: Unscientific as they see deviance as dysfunctional and functional Conflict Perspectives: Inability to explain conflict and change. Marxist- society is based on exploitation and divided into classes with conflicting interests and unequal power, stability is the result of ideologies produced by the dominant class. Functionalism in a conservative ideology by legitimating the status quo. Action Perspectives: Wrong: over socialized and deterministic- individuals have no free will or choice (puppets whose strings are pulled by the social system).

Also reifies society- treats it as a distinct thing over and above individuals with its own needs. Postmodernists: Assumes society is stable and orderly; doesn’t account for diversity and instability in this postmodern society. Functionalism is a meta-narrative that attempts to create a model of origins of society as a whole. Sociological Theory of Marxism Historical Materialism: Forces of production meet our material needs (food, shelter, clothing etc). Before these forces were unaided human labor but now people develop tools, machines etc to assist in production.

To meet these needs humans cooperate with one another and enter social relations of productions (ways of organizing production). Division of labor occurs between the owners of means of production and a class of laborers. Marx refers to the forces and production together as the mode of production. E. G. The mode of production creates an economic base of society which shapes other features e. G. Law, education, the state etc. Class society and exploitation Before there were no classes, no exploitation or private ownership; primitive communism.

But as the forces of production grow, class society occurs. One class owns the means of production which enables them to exploit the labor for their own benefit. They also control the society surplus product- difference between what the laborers produce and what is needed to keep them working. 3 successive class societies: Ancient society- based on exploitation of slaves legally tied to their – Feudal society- based on the exploitation of serfs legally tied to owners the land – Capitalist society- based on the exploitation of free wage laborers.

Capitalism: Proletariat: free/separated from the means of production as they don’t own it but sell their labor power to bourgeoisie in return of wages to survive; isn’t equal exchange (proletariat don’t receive any value of the goods just cost of subsistence). Surplus value- profits that capitalist makes by selling the products which the proletariat make. Competition it drives small independent reducers till the majority are proletarians. Competition= capitalists pay lowest wages possible= immigration.

Capitalism expands the forces of production in its pursuit of profit. Ownership and deskilling of the proletariat produce class plantations; society divides into two. Alienation: Laborers separated from/have no control over the forces of production. The division Of labor; worker is reduced to an unskilled laborer mindlessly repeating a meaningless task. The state, revolution and communism State exists to protect the interests of owners who control WAC; they become the ruling class. They use it as a weapon to protect property, suppress opposition and prevent revolution.

Marx- ultimate victory= proletarian revolution and establishment of communist society on a world scale. Revolution expected to occur in advanced capitalist societies. Criticisms: Simplistic, one-dimensional view of inequality Weber- Status and power can also be sources Of inequality Feminists- gender inequality. Class plantations hasn’t occurred- middle class has grown and WAC has shrunk. Economic determinism: fails to recognize we have free will and create social change through conscious actions. Revolution hasn’t occurred in the most advanced capitalist countries (Western Europe).

Two Marxism: Explains why capitalism has persisted and how it might be overthrown- Humanistic/Critical Marxism Scientific/Structuralism Marxism Example- Grammas Example- Alters Focuses on alienation and subjective experiences of the world Focuses on laws of capitalist developing working with iron necessity towards inevitable results Marxism is a political critique (alienating and inhuman= overthrow it) Marxism is a science, it discovers the laws that govern the workings of fatalism Voluntarism- have free will, active agents of our own history and have conscious ideas Determinism- structural factors determine the course of history, we are passive puppets/victims of ideology Socialism will occur when people become conscious of the need to overthrow capitalism and encourages political action Socialism will occur when the contradictions Of capitalism shows the system’s Inevitable collapse and discourages political action Grammas Proletariat must develop counter-hegemony to win the leadership of society.

Ruling class maintains its dominance over society Coercion – uses army, police, prisons etc of the capitalist state to force other classes to accept its rule – Consent – it uses ideas and values to persuade the subordinate classes that its rule is legitimate If society accepts ruling-class hegemony there won’t be a revolution, but ruling class is a minority – need a ‘power bloc’- making alliances with other groups; make compromises via interests of their allies The proletariat have dual consciousness – ideas are influenced by bourgeois ideology and material conditions- can see through dominant ideology Ruling-class hegemony may e undermined, especially at times of economic crisis. Only lead to revolution if the proletariat construct a counter-hegemonic bloc- offer moral and ideological leadership. If they produce their own ‘organic intellectuals’ (workers organized into a revolutionary political party) which formulate an alternative way to how society should be run Evaluation Over-emphases the role of ideas and under-emphases the role of state coercion and economic factors. Stresses the role of ideas and consciousness as the basis of resisting domination and changing society. E. G. Willis- WAC lads e studied were ‘partially penetrating’ bourgeois ideology- saw through schools ideology (meritocracy is a myth).

Alters: Capitalist society has 3 levels: – Economic level – compromising activities that involve producing something to satisfy a need – Political level – compromising all forms of organization – Ideological level – ways that people see themselves and their world In this model the political and ideological levels have relative autonomy/partial independence from the economic level. The political and ideological levels affect what happens to the economy – two-way causality Also the state performs political ND ideological functions that ensure the reproduction of capitalism- repressive state apparatus – army, police etc force WAC to comply with the will of the bourgeoisie Ideological state apparatus – media, education system etc manipulate the WAC into accepting capitalism as legitimate Humanists believe people use their creativity/free will to change society e. G. Revolution will come as a result of the WAC developing class consciousness.

Alters- we are not free agents; our belief possesses free will/choice that is a false consciousness produced by SIS. Socialism will occur over the crisis of capitalism (over- determination) – contradictions of the 3 structures that occur= collapse of the system as a whole. Evaluation Golden- this ‘scientific’ approach discourages political activism as it stresses the role of structural factors that individuals can do little to affect. Thompson- ignores active struggles of the WAC to change society- elitism (belief that Communist Party knows what is best for workers and should blindly follow their lead). Structuralism Marxism has influences postmodernism- reject scientific knowledge can be used to improve society.

Sociological Theory of Feminism Liberal/Reformist feminists: Generate equality between men and women, ending discrimination by transformations of attitudes and laws: Equal Pay Act (1971), Sex Discrimination Act (1975). Also cultural changes- traditional prejudices and stereotypes about gender differences are a barrier to equality. E. G. Beliefs that women are less rational exclude them from decision making and confinement to childrearing and housework. Oakley- sex= biological differences (fixed), gender= culturally constructed differences (vary Bette cultures/overtime). See sexist attitudes and stereotypes about gender is culturally constructed and transmitted by solicitation. Seek gradual char within society at the expense of fully overcoming patriarchy.

Promote appropriate role models and political action is steadily bringing about progress to a fairer society. Disagree with the functionalists- instruments and expressive roles- women are equally capable of performing both. Evaluation Over-optimism- see obstacles to liberation are prejudices of individuals o irrational laws. Ignore the possibility that there are deep-seated structure causing women’s oppression. Wally- no explanation for the overall strut of gender inequality. Radical feminists See patriarchy as universal- Firestone- origins of patriarchy lie in women’: biological capacity to bear and care for infants= dependent on men. Patriarchy is the primary and fundamental form of social inequality.

Patriarchal oppression occurs in public sphere of work, politics and private sphere of family/domestic labor/sexual relationships. Millstream sociology: sexuality as a natural biological urge, patriarchy constructs sexuality to satisfy men’s desires. Gender inequality can only be overcome wrought radical transformation of society- via: separatism- living apart fro men and creating female independence. Greer- ‘matricidal’ households is alternative to heterosexual families. Consciousness-raising- sharing experiences with other women- collective action. Political lesbianism- heterosexual relationships= inevitably oppressive as it involves ‘sleeping u the enemy and lesbianism is the only non-oppressive form of sexuality.

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