Social Darwinism

Social Darwinism

Social Darwinism- not any single well defined concept, but various ideologies that seek to apply biological concepts associated with Darwinism or other evolutionary theories o sociology, economics and politics, often with the assumption that conflict between groups in society leads to social progress as superior groups Outcome inferior Ones. Marx- Conflict. Marxist-based social theory which argues that individuals and groups (social classes) within society have differing amounts of material and non-material resources (such as the wealthy vs.. He poor) and that the more powerful groups use their power in order to exploit groups with less power. Two major social groups: a ruling class and a subject class. The ruling class derives its power from its ownership and control of the forces of production. The ruling class exploits and oppresses the subject class. As a result there is a basic conflict of interest between the two classes. Druthers- Social integration, mechanical/organic solidarity. Druthers believed that society extorted a powerful force on individuals.

According to Druthers, peoples norms, beliefs, and values , make up a collective consciousness, or way of understanding or seeing the world. The collective consciousness binds individuals and creates social integration. Simpler societies are based on mechanical solidarity, in which self sufficient people are connected to others by close personal ties. Modern societies are based upon organic solidarity, in which people are connected by their reliance on others in the division of labor. Weber- persistent, protestant ethic.

Weber began his studies of the subject in The Protestant Ethic and the Spirit of Capitalism, in which he argued that the redefinition of the connection between work and piety in Protestantism and especially in ascetic Protestant denominations, particularly Calvinist, shifted human effort towards rational efforts aimed at achieving economic gain. In Protestant religion, Christian piety towards God was expressed through one’s secular vocation secularists of calling). The rational roots of this doctrine, he argued, soon grew incompatible with and larger than the religious and so the latter were eventually discarded.

Dubos- insisted on full civil rights and increased political representation, which he believed would be brought about by the African-American intellectual elite. He referred to this group as the talented tenth and believed that African Americans needed the chances for advanced education to develop its leadership. Racism was the main target of Dubbing’s polemics, and he strongly protested against lynching, Jim Crow laws, and coordination in education and employment. Symbolic Interactions- major sociological perspective that is influential in many areas of the discipline.

It is particularly important in micro sociology and social psychology. George Mead and Herbert Plumber Marten’s functions- Manifest functions and dysfunctions are conscious and deliberate, the latent ones the unconscious and unintended. While functions are intended (manifest) or unintended (latent), and have a positive effect on society, dysfunctions are unintended or unrecognized (latent) and have a negative effect on society. Functionalism- Micro and Macro. Micro-level focuses on individuals and their interactions. For example the relationship between adult children and their parents, or the effect of negative attitudes on older people.

Macro-level focuses more upon social structure, social processes and problems, and their interrelationships. For example the effects of industrialization on older people’s status, or how gender and income affect older people’s well being. Ethnocentrism- judging another culture solely by the values and standards of one’s own culture. Teeth necrotic individuals judge other groups relative to their own ethnic group r culture, especially with concern for language, behavior, Customs, and religion. These ethnic distinctions and subdivisions serve to define each ethnicity’s unique cultural identity.

Ethnocentrism may be overt or subtle, and while it is considered a natural proclivity of human psychology, it has developed a generally negative connotation. Edgerton and cultural relativism- The normal human tendency to be ethnocentric towards other cultures creates a problem for social scientists who want to study human behavior in an objective manner. You cannot be objective towards a foreign culture when o evaluate it according to your own norms and values. To overcome the bias caused by ethnocentrism, most social scientists practice cultural relativism.

Sapid/Wharf- the structure of a language affects the ways in which its respective speakers conceptualize their world, I. E. Their world view, or otherwise influences their cognitive processes. Popularly known as the Sapid-Wharf hypothesis, or Harmoniums, the principle is often defined as having two versions: (I) the strong version that language determines thought and that linguistic categories limit and determine cognitive categories and (ii) he weak version that linguistic categories and usage influence thought and certain kinds of non-linguistic behavior.

Norms- smallest piece of the social structure, but they have power. Norms are explicit. Norms lead to roles. Subculture- Is a group of people within a culture that differentiates themselves from the larger culture to which they belong. The term subculture has become deprecated among some researchers, who prefer the term co- culture, in order to avoid the connotations of inferiority associated with the “sub-I’ prefix. Pluralistic Society- is any society in which citizens can legally and publicly hold multiple competing ethical views and are allowed to choose for themselves what ethical beliefs if any they wish to hold.

Morocco- Is an Australian American media mogul. Morocco became managing director of Australia’s News Limited, inherited from his father, in 1952. He is the founder, Chairman and CEO of global media holding company News Corporation, the world’s second-largest media conglomerate and its successors News Corp. and 21st Century Fox. Cerebral cortex- is the outermost sheet of neural tissue of the cerebrum of the brain in humans and some other vertebrates. The cerebral cortex plays a key role in memory, attention, perceptual awareness, thought, language, and consciousness.

It consists of up to six horizontal layers, each with a different composition in terms of neurons and connectivity. The human cerebral cortex has six layers and is 2 to 4 millimeters thick. Suburb’s cultural lag- refers to the notion that culture takes time to catch up with technological innovations, and that social problems and conflicts are caused by this lag. Subsequently, cultural lag does not only apply to this idea only, but also relates to theory and explanation. It helps by identifying and explaining social problems and also to predict future problems. Ultra lag is a common societal phenomenon due to the tendency of material culture to evolve and change rapidly and voluminously while non-material culture tends to resist change and remain fixed for a far longer period of time. Natural Selection- is the gradual natural process by which biological traits become either more or less common in a population as a function of the effect of inherited traits on the differential reproductive success of organisms interacting with their environment. It is a key Achaeans of evolution.

The term “natural selection” was popularized by Charles Darwin who intended it to be compared with artificial selection, which is now called selective breeding. Nature/Nurture- This debate within psychology is concerned with the extent to which particular aspects of behavior are a product of either inherited (I. E. Genetic) or acquired (I. E. Learned) characteristics. Nature is that which is inherited / genetic. Isolated Children- children that were raised by one person or a small group Of persons in an isolated area with minimal or no contact to a typical society. He looking lass self’. This theory had three primary elements: we imagine how we appear to those around us, we interpret others’ reactions, and we develop a self concept. The basic gist of it is that look at those around us, and base our appearance and social interactions on what they do and what they expect. If a feral child is raised by animals, he is going to acquire the attributes of those animals. Likewise, an isolated child will base his actions on other isolated individuals or no one, and will develop little or no basic interaction skill.

Cooley’s self- stating that a person’s self grows out of society’s interpersonal interactions and the perceptions of others. The term refers to people shaping their self-concepts based on their understanding of how others perceive them. Because people conform to how they think others think them to be, it’s difficult, or arguably impossible, to act differently from how a person thinks he or she is perpetually perceived. Mead’s “l” / “me” While establishing the idea of self, Mead introduces a distinction between the “l” and the “me”, respectively, the active and socialized aspects of the person.

The “me” is a similar concept to Cooley’s looking-glass self. An example of Hess concepts is the Pygmalion effect whereby a person (l) behaves to match the sense of self (me) they derive from others, in a form of self-fulfilling prophecy. Fraud’s ID and psychoanalysis- The id is the only component of personality that is present from birth. This aspect of personality is entirely unconscious and includes of the instinctive and primitive behaviors.

According to Freud, the id is the source of all psychic energy, making it the primary component of personality. The id is driven by the pleasure principle, which strives for immediate gratification of all desires, wants, and needs. If these needs are not satisfied immediately, the result is a state anxiety or tension. Total Institution- is a place of work and residence where a great number of similarly situated people, cut off from the wider community for a considerable time, together lead an enclosed, formally administered round of life. (I. E. Orphanages, mental hospitals, jails, boarding schools) Gratifier’s degradation ceremony- communicative work directed towards transforming an individual’s total identity into an identity lower in the relevant group’s scheme of social types. Garfield argued that the structural conditions of moral indignation and shame-?and hence the conditions of status degradation-?are universal to all societies. Law courts are one example where degradation ceremonies are carried out publicly by professional degrades (lawyers and judges) as an occupational routine.

Public denunciations undertaken in other social settings may be just as effective. The term highlights the importance Of societal reaction in the defining of deviance in everyday life. Ascribed/ Achieved- An achieved status is one that is acquired on the basis of merit; it is a position that is earned or chosen and reflects a person’s skills, abilities, and efforts. Being a professional athlete, for example, is an achieved status, as is being a lawyer, college professor, or criminal. An ascribed status, on the other hand, is one that is beyond an individual’s control.

It is not earned, but rather something people are either born with or had no control over. Examples of ascribed status include sex and race. Children usually have more ascribed statuses than adults since they do not usually have a choice in most matters. Status Inconsistency- is a situation where an individual’s social positions have both positive and negative influences on his or her social status. For example, a teacher may have a positive societal image (respect, prestige) which increases their Status but may earn little money, which simultaneously decreases their status.

Status Symbols- is a perceived visible, external denotation of one’s social position and perceived indicator of economic or social status. Many luxury goods are often considered status symbols. (Cars, money, jewelry, clothes, etc. ) Institutions- is any structure or mechanism of social order and cooperation governing the behavior of a set of individuals within a given community -? may it be human or a specific animal one. Institutions are identified with a social purpose, transcending individuals and intentions by mediating the rules that govern cooperative living behavior. I. E. , schools, hospitals, courts, etc) Gamesmanship/ shillelagh’s/ Tensionless- community and society. Terms coined by Ferdinand Townies in order to categorize social ties into two social types. Gamesmanship,; belonging to indirect interactions, impersonal roles, formal values, and beliefs based on such interactions. Stereotype- is a thought that may be adopted about specific types of individuals or certain ways of doing things, but that belief may or may not accurately reflect reality.

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