Sociology Literature Review

Sociology Literature Review

Two of the types of suicides Druthers defined occurred in industrial societies: (1 ) egoistic suicide, which exults from the individual being insufficiently integrated into the social groups and society to which he/she belongs and (2) anomic suicide, which took place when society did not regulate the individual sufficiently. This meant that society’s guidelines for behavior became unclear as rapid social change disrupted traditional norms and values.

The other two types of suicides defined by Druthers would have been experienced in preinstall societies: (1) altruistic suicide, which is where an individual would sacrifice their life out of a sense of duty to others because they were strongly integrated into the society and (2) fatalistic suicide, which occurred when the society restricted the individual too much. According to Jack D. Douglas in The Social Meaning of Suicide (1970), each act of suicide has a different motive behind it and a social meaning that is related to the society and context in which it took place.

French sociologist, Jean Backache (1 979), expanded on what was said by Douglas in Suicide as Problem Solving. Backache saw committing suicide as a last resort when responding to and trying to solve a problem. He believed that there were four types of suicides: leaning from an intolerable life results in escapist suicides, aggressive suicides are ways of harming a person or people as well as killing yourself, achieving something that is valued by the victim when he/she commits suicide is an ablative suicide, and deliberately risking your life in a way that may lead to death is a Ludwig suicide.

Steve Taylor in ‘Persons under Trains’ (1989) stated that suicide statistics are unreliable. In his study, Taylor recorded that thirty- two people were hit by tube trains on the England Underground and although here were no strong clues as to the reason for these deaths, some were classified as suicide because of the person’s mental history and those who did not really fit in with society.

According to Taylor, there are two types of octopi or inner-directed suicides: people who commit submissive suicides think that they have no future and so, they give in to fate and people who risk their live in an attempt to kill themselves commit iodination suicide. Taylor stated that there are two types of symphonic or other-directed suicides: sacrifice suicides happen when an individual thinks their life is unbearable or they blame someone else for causing them to commit suicide and if someone is uncertain of their importance in another person’s life, they commit an appeal suicide.

Tailor’s study shows the interactions perspective because there is no sure way to know if someone has committed suicide unless they leave a note or video. Classifying a death as suicide based on the person’s mental history and place in society is the use symbols. A paper was done on the English-speaking Caribbean using research published during the period 980 – 2005. According to the research females had higher rates of attempted suicide.

There were ethnic differences in Trinidad where Indo-Traditions made more suicide attempts than Afro-Traditions or mixed race counterparts. The most common method of attempting suicide was by ingestion of a toxic substance. The ethnic base of this sub-population had equal numbers of male patients of African and East Indian descent; however, in females, Indo-Trinitarian patients outnumbered Afro-Trinitarian patients by two to one. Lovers’ quarrels, psychiatric illness and family disputes counted for the majority of cases.

Persons of Indo-Caribbean origin predominated in suicides due to lovers’ quarrels or family disputes and persons of Afro-Caribbean origin were slightly more represented In persons suffering from psychiatric illnesses. Depression was the most common psychiatric illness diagnosed. The herbicide, parquet, was the most commonly used substance in both North and South Trinidad. The main reason given for attempting suicide was interpersonal conflicts which included intra-familial and marital conflicts as well as lovers’ quarrels.

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