Sociology Exam

Sociology Exam

Different from other conflict harries of race and ethnic relations in one important regard – it focuses almost exclusively upon inequalities and conflicts that occur between (rather than in) racial groups. Split labor-market theory: lists three economic interest groups -? employers, [Owners Of capital], higher-paid labor, and lower-paid labor. According to this theory, the majority-group members who hold the higher-paying jobs attempt to protect their position by demanding hiring discrimination against minorities. Majority-group workers demand and benefit from discrimination because it protects their favored position in the abort force.

Marxist theory: racism exists mainly because it benefits the ruling economic class. Racial antagonisms are primarily a mechanism that is used by the owners of capital to divide the working class. Functionalist Perspective O (order perspective/systems theory) Microbiological perspective: any society takes its particular form because that form works well for the society, or helps to preserve the society, given its particular situation. Attributes racial and ethnic conflict and inequality largely to cultural differences among groups.

Ethnocentrism [attitude in which each group insiders its own values and ways of doing things to be the natural, right, and superior way] contributes to racial and ethnic inequalities, because each group thinks it is better than the others. Many functionalists prefer assimilation [a process whereby differences between groups are reduced so that the different groups share a common set of values and a common social structure. Assimilations believe that as societies modernize, assimilation occurs and racial inequality tends to decrease because interdependency in society increases as society becomes more complex.

Interactions Perspective D Microbiological perspective: the interpretation of reality can often be an important factor in determining the ultimate reality. The individual’s understanding of social reality depends in part on the content of the messages and situations he or she encounters and in part on how he or she interprets those messages and situations. Racial Group C] a category of people who (1) share some socially recognized physical characteristic [skin color or facial features] that distinguishes them from other such categories, and (2) are recognized by themselves and others as a distinct Status group.

Ethnic Group L] a category of people who are recognized as a distinct status group entirely on the basis of social or cultural criteria such as nationality or religion. There is no reliable way to identify a person’s ethnic group by his or her physical appearance. A crucial part of the definition of both racial and ethnic groups is that they must be socially recognized as distinct groups. Social Group C] a set of two or more people who interact regularly, share some common purpose, and have some structure of roles and statuses.

Ascribed Status any status that a person receives through birth [race, sex, ND family of origin]. Majority Group D those in the advantaged or dominant positions. Minority Group 0 those in disadvantaged or subordinate positions. Racism D any attitude, belief, behavior, or social arrangement that has the intent or the ultimate effect of favoring one racial or ethnic group over another. Ideological Racism D belief that one race or ethnic group is naturally superior (or inferior) to another.

Hitter’s concept of a “master race”; belief of slaveholders that blacks were uncivilized and incapable of anything more than physical labor; conviction among the southwestern Angles of the late nineteenth century that the partial Indian ancestry of Mexican Americans predisposed them to “savagery” and “banditry’. Prejudice 0 any categorical and unfounded personalization concerning a group. Prejudice involves an automatic reaction to a group or to a person’s group membership. Stereotypes D common type of prejudice: an exaggerated belief concerning a group of people.

Individual Discrimination any behavior that treats people unequally on the basis of race, ethnicity, or some other group characteristic. Symbolic Racism D a pattern in which people do not express overtly restudies or racist ideas, but oppose any social policy that would eliminate or reduce racial inequality, such as affirmative action, government spending to assist minorities, school busing to desegregated schools, and minority scholarships. Amalgamation repeated intermarriage and interbreeding between racial groups to the point that the various groups became largely indistinguishable.

Sex CLC biologically defined: the biological fact that a person is either a man or a woman. Male or female Gender 0 socially defined: socially learned traits associated with, and expected of, men or women. Masculine or feminine Gender Roles C] roles society expects people to play on account of their sex. Like all roles, gender roles are made up of sets of expectations, so they can be thought of as sets of expectations that are attached to sex. Men – expected to be leaders, take control, to make decisions, and to be active, worldly, unemotional, and aggressive; not expected to talk about their feelings.

Permitted to be blunt, loud, and a bit sloppy. Relationship: sexual gratification is often a higher priority than interpersonal intimacy. Women – traditionally expected to be dependent, emotional, and unable to exercise dervish, excel at math, or make decisions; expected to be neater and more considerate than men, to have a better understanding Of their own feelings and those of others, to have a higher standard of morality, and to be more appreciative of art, religion, and literature. Relationship: view intimacy as more important than sexual gratification.

Sexism C] structured inequality between men and women, and the norms, roles, and beliefs that support such inequality. Ideological sexism: belief that one sex is inferior to another. Sexual discrimination: unequal treatment on the basis of sex. Comparable Worth 0 states that men and women who work in different occupations that require similar skills and education should receive similar wages. White- Collar Crime D non-violent offenses carried out by people of relatively high social status who attempt to gain money, property, or person benefit through deceit.

Employers, organizations, and the general public are victimized by these activities [larcenies of time, embezzlement, padding expense accounts, income-tax evasion, insurance fraud, credit-card fraud, and computer theft]. Street Crime C] two categories: violent crime and property crime. Violent offenses include murder, forcible rape, assault, and robbery; property crime includes burglary, larceny-theft, and motor vehicle theft. Corporate Crime D unique in that offenders are large organizations – corporations rather than individuals.

Such crimes result from deliberate decisions made by corporate personnel to increase or maintain organizational resources or profits [multinational bribery, price-fixing, the sale of unsafe products, and polluting the environment]. Primary Groups D the interpersonal relationships are the primary purpose of the group’s existence; the people in these groups interact cause they value one another [families and good friends]. Always small because intimate relationships cannot develop throughout a large network of people.

Secondary Groups C large and formal organizations where relationships between members are less personal [businesses, schools, and political organizations]. In these groups, interpersonal contacts occur for the purpose of conducting business, gaining an education, or influencing politics – not for the sake of the contacts themselves; groups can either be small or big. Corrupting CA a process whereby a group collectively arrives at a decision hat individual members privately oppose but do not challenge.

This usually happens in small, cohesive groups with powerful leaders. Oligarchy D form of authoritarian government in which a small group rules with absolute power. Also sometimes refers to the tendency of large-scale organizations to be ruled by their leaders, even if they are formally democratic. Iron law of oligarchy: a principle stated by Robert Michele that argues that in any organization, power will become concentrated in the hands of the leaders, who may then use that power to protect their own interests.

Bureaucracy CLC A arm of organization characterized by specialization, hierarchy, formal rules, impersonality, lifelong careers, and a specialized administrative staff. Max Weber: viewed bureaucracy as a necessary evil. He perceived it as essential to accomplish tasks of any size and to protect democratic rights. At the same time, he saw it as deprogramming -? people would come to be treated as positions or numbers rather than as people. People and their individual needs and concerns would become secondary’ to the goals of large, uncaring organizations. Karl Marx: viewed bureaucracy as an unnecessary evil.

Marx analyzed bureaucracy from a conflict perspective, arguing that it does not meet a societal need, only the needs of the rich and powerful. According to Marx, bureaucracy enables the owners of the means of production to maintain control of organizations. Quality Control Circles C small group of usually about five to ten workers who meet regularly to assess the group’s performance. This serves three purposes: (1 ) it contributes to the improvement of the product or enterprise, (2) improves human relations and worker satisfaction, and (3) allows workers the opportunity to express their lull potential.

Prohibition C] temperance movement of the 20th century (sass’s) was backed mainly by the influential rural middle class, who believed its power was threatened by the new urban immigrant class. As cities gained economically and rural areas declined, the rural middle class viewed urban populations as a threat and as the cause of all that was wrong in American society. The middle class moved to prohibit alcohol consumption to restrain a group it labeled threatening and immoral. With its political power, the rural middle class Was able to pass the Prohibition Amendment, which reinforced TTS sense of moral security and superiority.

War on Drugs C] prime example of the role that power plays in defining deviance. The two deadliest drugs used in the U. S are tobacco (435,000 people a year) and alcohol (85,000 people a year): both legal, and the main source of income for some of the nation’s largest corporations. Illegal drugs that are most targeted by the “War on Drugs” are the ones used by the least powerful: Crack cocaine: used largely by the poor and people of color; arrest rates and penalties are higher Powder cocaine: used more often by the upper class

The main casualties in the “War on Drugs” have been African Americans and women. Deviance 0 any behavior disapproved by a large or influential portion Of society. Deviance is socially defined: it is behavior that does not conform to the expectations or norms in a group or society [crime and illegal drug use]. Primary’ deviance: related to unique social, cultural or psychological situations. It is not the result of labeling, nor is it associated with the basic psychological makeup of the offender. Only marginally related to the offenders self-concept.

Taking money left unattended, shoplifting for a thrill, ranking alcohol before age 21, and smoking marijuana with college peers Secondary deviance: people engage in because they have come to see themselves as deviant as a result of labeling by others. It evolves out of an offenders self-concept. An occasional marijuana smoker may come to be identified by his acquaintances as a “doper” Primary Sector D consists of the direct extraction of natural resources from the environment [fishing, farming, mining, woodcutting, oil drilling, and generating solar or hydroelectric power].

The economic viability Of the primary sector depends on the availability Of tartar resources and the market for products derived from natural resources, so it can be subject to severe fluctuations. Secondary Sector њ consists of making or manufacturing products, such as cars, airplanes, televisions, dishes, and computers. It includes not only mass production by also the handcrafting such items as furniture, carriages, and building vultures. Generally, if a product is made my machines or human hands rather than taken directly from the environment, it is part of the secondary structure.

Tertiary Sector consists of producing and processing information and roving services. The products of the tertiary sector are less tangible than physical products such as cars or houses [teaching, research, data analysis, Web page design, management and investment consulting, broadcasting, entertaining, and writing]. Embeddings LLC society and the economy are not on separate paths; they are one and the same. The economy is a subsection of society. Any attempt to dissembled the market from society would result in devastation and destruction.

Affirmative Action C any effort designed to overcome past or institutional discrimination by increasing the number of minorities or females in schools, job, or job-training programs. Deterrence C] one of the main purposes for having formal negative sanctions. The prevention of crime or deviant behavior through punishment, whereby fear of the punishment prevents people from engaging in the deviant behavior. The belief that formal negative sanctions deter deviant behavior comes from the classical criminology school of thought. Sanctions: direct control.

Sanctions consist of rewards for conforming behavior and punishments for nonconforming behavior. Split-Labor Market Theory CLC lists three economic interest groups -? employers, [owners of capital], higher-paid labor, and lower- paid labor. According to this theory, the majority-group members who hold the higher-paying jobs attempt to protect their position by demanding hiring labor force. Assimilation (cultural) CA process whereby differences between groups are reduced so that the different groups share a common set of values and a common social structure.

Cautionary notes: (1) it can take a very long time for this to happen, and it may happen only after a period of escalating conflict and, sometimes, violence; (2) as a practical matter, it is the minority groups that are expected to do most of the changing to fit into the majority group’s way of doing things; (3) stochastically studies show that cultural differences alone do not cause great racial inequality: economic motivations also play an important role in the creation of systems of racial inequality such as slavery in the united States; (4) a variety of studies have shown that assimilation occurs more readily among immigrant minorities, who have chosen to enter a society, than it does among colonized minorities, who have no choice in the matter. Pluralism (cultural) 0 process whereby efferent racial, ethnic, or cultural groups in a society retain some Of their own cultural characteristics while sharing others with the larger society. Some social and cultural characteristics are shared in common throughout a society, but differences among groups also exist and are accepted.

In general, the idea of a cultural mosaic, in which society is composed of many different groups with different culture and traditions, has gained favor over the idea of mass assimilation, in which all groups become culturally similar. Discrimination D behavior that treats people unequally on the basis of an scribed status such as race or sex- Individual discrimination is usually conscious and deliberate. Prejudices of any type concern what people think, discrimination concerns what they do. Coefficients C holistic theory that makes important linkages between the subordination of women and other destructive processes. These include harm to the natural environment, colonization, and exploitation of indigenous peoples around the world.

The theory of coefficients holds that there has been a linkage throughout the development of Western civilization between male domination of women and n ideology of the dominance of man over nature. The basic ideology that is revealed in these sources (old literature, back to the Greeks) is the belief that it is naturally ordained that men should be in control – of women, of the political system, and of land and nature. This ideology of male control becomes both a cause of and a justifying argument in support of a wide range of destructive activity, including exploitation of the environment for profit, the subordination of women and their exclusion from positions of power, and the conquest and colonization of the Third World.

Coefficients wows that the forces that have led to male domination of women over the centuries are much the same forces that have led to worldwide damage to the environment over the past century. Women are often in roles that lead them to protect the environment, whereas men are more likely to be in roles that may tempt them to damage it. Instrumental Leadership Roles O task leader. This type of leader helps the group define its job and determine how best to do it. Expressive Leadership Roles constitutional leader or inspirational leader. This leader helps maintain the cohesiveness of the group ND looks out for the social and emotional well-being of its members. Colonization C] process by which new members of a society are taught to participate in that society, learn their roles, and develop a self-image.

Rationalization D process by which tradition, faith, and personal relationships are set aside in the conduct of business, with decisions being made on the basis of what is expected to work best (Hibernia sociology). Alienation 0 separation of isolation of workers from the products of their labor; more broadly, feelings or the experience of isolation, powerlessness, or loss of intro (Marx). Globalization 0 transition to a worldwide economy that transcends national boundaries. Indirect Social Control CLC regulation through ideological or cultural influences. It is the most pervasive and effective means Of social control, and because it is accomplished through colonization, people generally do not view it as repressive. The institutions of family, religion, education, and government present people with a largely consistent definition or morality.

Direct Social Control n necessary to ensure social conformity [sanctions D form of direct social control that uses rewards and instruments to encourage conformity to social norms]. Informal sanctions: gestures, frowns, smiles, companionship, avoidance, gossip and praise, and sometimes violence. They are frequent, spontaneous reactions to behaviors that anyone can administer, and are applied to violations of folkways and, sometimes, mores. Informal-negative sanctions: gossip and condemnation traditionally associated with unwed teenage motherhood, whereas the praise and attention connected with “legitimate births” constitute informal-positive sanctions.

Formal sanctions: well defined and can be applied only by people tit proper institutional credentials, such as priests, police, and judges. Far less frequently applied than informal sanctions. Formal-positive sanctions: receiving a diploma or winning a gold medal at a track meet. Formal negative sanctions: excommunication from a religious organization, expulsion from high school, and criminal punishment. Criminal sanctions constitute the most powerful negative sanctions a society can apply. Norm of Minimization U value in capitalist countries of trying to derive maximum benefits from scarce resources. Sick Role C social role played by people who are recognized by there as having a sickness, which exempts them from normal role obligations.

Epidemiology C) measurement of the extent of medical disorders in a population, and the social, demographic, and geographic characteristics of those with such disorders. National Health Insurance CLC governmentally mandated system of health insurance for the entire population, based of fee- for-service payment that is funded through taxes or through a combination of taxes and employer-paid insurance. Fee-for-service: method of payment for health care in which providers receive a set amount of money for each service hat they provide. Formal Organization D relatively large self-perpetuating social group with a name, an established purpose, a role Structure, and a set of rules.

Robert Morton 0 work focuses most directly on the relationship between anomie and deviant behavior. Anomie develops when society teaches people to want or need certain things, but fails to provide legitimate opportunities to get those things. In effect, society creates appetites that cannot be satisfied by complying within its norms. Television programs and advertisements often portray and glorify an affluent lifestyle that most ewers cannot attain, at least through any legal means. Morton: this situation is anomic because when following society rules does not lead to society rewards, people may disregard or disobey the rules in a variety of ways.

Deviance is prevalent in the United States because all social participants are taught to desire and strive for economic success, while individual variation and class structure prevent many from achieving that foal. It is not poverty itself that generates deviant behavior, but poverty surrounded by wealth, in a society where wealth is the norm. Four deviant adaptations people make to the anxiety and frustration of anomic situations: (1) innovation, (2) ritualism, (3) reiterates, (4) rebellion. Karl Marx D saw bureaucracy as an unnecessary evil; argued that it does not meet a societal need, only the needs of the rich and powerful. Bureaucracy enables the owners of the means of production to maintain control of organizations.

Through hierarchy, the ruling class ensures that everyone in the organization works in a way that maximizes the owners’ profits. Marx defined alienation as the result of separating the worker from the product of his or her labor. In large, specialized organizations, each worker does only a small part of the job, and the finished product is not the product of any one worker’s efforts. Modern workers in bureaucracies cannot see that they have produced an item of value, and as a result, they may come to doubt their own value. Reverse army of the unemployed: serves an important function for the owners of capital – it reminds workers that they can easily be replaced and keeps them from demanding too much in the way of higher wages and benefits.

Max Weber D ideal type bureaucracy. An ideal type is an abstract ascription that actual entities will fit to a greater or lesser extent. Six characteristics (1) division of labor, (2) hierarchy, (3) formal rules and regulations, (4) impersonality and universalism, (5) managerial or administrative staff, (6) lifelong careers. Saw bureaucracy as an “iron cage”, necessary yet inevitable ably trapping workers in a dependencies situation. Weber linked the spread of a norm of minimization with the more individualistic values of Protestantism, and argues that by promoting individualism, Protestantism created a cultural atmosphere in which fatalism could flourish.

Weber made two points: (1) the norm of minimization is not universal -? it has existed only in some societies through history, (2) the culture and values of a society may make it more or less conducive to capitalism – a view that is consistent with the notion that capitalism needs the norm Of minimization in order to fully develop. Weber saw class (economic income and wealth), status, and power as three separate dimensions of inequality. He recognized that wealth influences power, but he believed that wealth does not determine power. [It is possible to be wealthy UT not powerful or powerful but not wealthy]. Weber saw society inevitably seduced into a more and more meaningless, materialistic, and narcissistic existence. Society would be helpless to reverse the decline. Weber argued that the state is the institution that holds a legitimate monopoly over physical violence in a given territory.

This kind of power is most effective if never used. Once a state resorts to violence, it shows weakness. Resorting to violence means a state has no other way to enforce its will and this often leads to a loss of legitimacy. Mile Druthers CLC conditions of anomie are most likely to occur during periods of rapid social change, old rules break down or are rejected, and behaviors Once considered deviant spread. Druthers considered a limited amount of crime to be a normal and necessary characteristic of all societies. He argued that deviance was so crucial to social order that societies lacking a given amount of it would redefine acceptable behavior to create deviance.

Tailcoat Parsons and Robert Bales gender roles facilitate specialization within the family. They based their arguments on research showing that in organizations and groups performing tasks, two hypes of leaders typically emerge: instrumental leaders, whose main concern is getting the job done, and expressive leaders, whose role is to address the feelings of people in the group and the relations among those people. Parsons and Bales argued that as a small group, the family needs both instrumental and expressive leadership. They saw the traditional male role as filling the family’s need for instrumental leadership and the traditional female role as providing expressive leadership.

Tailcoat Parsons D the primary function of social control is to reduce tensions between different elements of he social system in order to ensure the cooperation necessary for a society to function reasonably well. Functionalist and Conflict Theories for Chapters 7-11 Chapter 7 – Race and Ethnic Relations See prejudice and discrimination as arising from society rather than from the experiences of individuals. Functionalists view prejudice as largely the outgrowth of cultural differences and ethnocentrism. They see assimilation as the solution because it eliminated the cultural differences that form the basis of prejudice and discrimination. Conflict theorists see racial inequality as an outgrowth of economic conflict, both within and between racial groups.

Chapter 8 – Sex, Gender, and Society Functionalists see gender roles as a case of cultural lag – something that was useful in the past but no longer is today. They predict that society will gradually move toward androgyny. Other functionalists see gender roles as essential to the cohesiveness of the family and blame such problems as the soaring divorce rate on the declining influence Of traditional gender roles. Conflict theorists argue that gender roles exist because men benefit from them. Men use their disproportionate power to maintain a system of unequal ender roles. Conflict theorists also argue that families with traditional gender roles are no happier or more functional than are more androgynous families, and that the ability of working women to afford divorce may not be all bad.

Chapter 9 – Groups, Organizations, and the Workplace Functionalist Max Weber developed what amounted to a functionalist analysis of bureaucracy, arguing that it has spread because it permits rationalization, making decisions on the basis of what best gets the job done. Conflict theorists argue that bureaucracy also concentrates control over the organization in the hands of those at the top, which is one reason it is so widespread. Chapter 10 – Deviance, Crime, and Social Control Functionalists like Druthers argue that a limited amount Of deviance performs the positive role of providing a society with alternative ways of thinking, organizing, and behaving, thus facilitating adaptation to changing conditions. When deviance becomes excessive, it threatens social cohesion and must be repressed.

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