Sociology Essay Erickson

Sociology Essay Erickson

He organized life into eight stages that extend from birth to death. Erikson ‘s first psychosocial conflict is trust versus mistrust. This take begins at birth and continues until about one year of age. The central issue that infant’s resolve in this stage is ‘Can I trust others? “. Erikson believed infants learn to trust other people if their needs are satisfied by their caretakers. If a caregiver is unresponsive to the infants needs and they go UN- met “the balance of trust… Ill tip in the direction Of mistrust” Through resolving this issue of trust and MIS-trust, Erikson believed infants “begin to recognize that they are separate from the caregivers who respond to their needs begin to distinguish self from others”Research in child development purports this stage and has shown that 2 to 3 month old infants do begin to distinguish themselves from their caretakers. Erikson believed ‘for development to proceed optimally, a healthy balance between the terms of of each conflate must be struck”.

Therefore, it is important to development to have a successful resolution of this stage because it lays the foundation for each additional stage. If a stage is not resolved correctly, later stages may remain unresolved as well. Parents are primarily responsible for satisfying this stage of development in their child. It is imperative parents are attentive o their infant’s needs so trust can be developed. Autonomy versus shame and doubt is the next stage in Erosion’s psychosocial theory. This stage primarily deals with the issue “Can act on my own? And it last from about age one until age three. According to Erikson in this stage a toddler begins to assert their will and they develop a greater sense of their own identity. Research supports this developmental stage as well, and 18 month olds begin to “recognize themselves in a mirror and lace their speech with me and no”. To develop this stage parents should let their children have some control over mall areas of their lives. One way a parent could do this would be give their toddler a choice in what they wear between several outfits, or a choice of activities.

Parents could ask their 3 year old “do you want to go to the pool or do you want to go to the park today? ” This would allow their toddler to act on their own and develop a sense of autonomy without relinquishing too much control to them. Once a sense of autonomy has been developed, the next stage in the psychosocial theory is initiative versus guilt. This stage is from about age three to age six and children focus on whether or not they can carry out their plans successfully”.

According to Erikson, in this Stage the child develops a sense of purpose by devising plans and accomplishing the goals they have set. It is important for children in this stage to set goals and have success completing these goals. Parents many need to work with their children to help them master the skills necessary for them to have success in their goals. For example, a child who sets a goal of learning how to ride a bicycle with no training wheels will need a parent to help them practice riding until they have mastered balance.

Once they have mastered the balance accessory to ride a bicycle, they can then complete their goal. Research support Erosion’s findings for this stage and children in this age group “define themselves primarily in terms of their physical activities and accomplishment”. Between the ages of six and twelve children are in Erosion’s stage of industry versus inferiority. Children in this stage face the central question “Am competent compared with others? “. Erikson believes that children in this stage are focused on mastering cognitive and social skills.

Research into elementary school aged children has show that they are soused on comparing themselves to others an evaluation their competency in skills. Children in this stage feel competent when comparisons to others in their peer group turn out favorably for them. If these comparisons tend to be unfavorable, then children will develop a sense of inferiority. This stage is most effectively resolved by a child having success in school or in activities that are important to them, like being a good baseball player or being good at art.

If a child in this stage can not identify skills and activities they can successfully accomplish compared to their peers, their parent or teacher eight need to step in to provide them with compliments on their school work, social skills, and activities they can successfully accomplish. Identity versus role confusion is the crisis of adolescence. Between the ages of twelve to twenty adolescents are seeking to answer the question “who am l? ” As adolescents move from late childhood into early adult they begin to think about the role they will play in the society.

One way adolescents achieve a sense Of who they are, is by experimenting with their behavior and their activities. They also begin to re-evaluate their belief systems and may begin to question authority figures. Parents and teachers need to give adolescents in this stage the freedom to explore these new roles. If a parent is insistent their adolescent follow their wishes and desires instead of determining their own. The adolescent might fail to discover their identity, resulting in role confusion. According to Erikson early adulthood is the time when the psychosocial conflict of intimacy versus isolation is resolved.

This stage answers the question “am ready for a relationship? “. Erikson believed an individual identity must be achieved before a person is able to share a relationship With another person. Or in another words, “you must know yourself before you can love some one else” A young adult who has not yet mastered the previous stage of identity versus role confusion and does not have a clear sense Of self, may be threatened by the thought Of entering into a committed relationship. If a person is unable to form an intimate relationship a sense of isolation and loneliness may result.

Studies have shown that people with an undeveloped sense of self are likely to have commitment issues, while those with well-formed identities were likely to form genuine and lasting intimacy. If young adult has not been exposed to appropriate and loving relationships as a guide, they must guess at how to from this type of relationship. These young adults might fail to realize they are building unhealthy relationships, when this happens they young person could become disillusioned with the idea of being in a relationship and become isolated.

It is important they are provided with healthy examples of relationships from someone in their lives. Authority figures the young adult are close with, such as a favorite teacher or a religious leader could provide a surrogate relationship example for these nouns adults. Starting at age forty until around age sixty-five adults are in the generatively versus stagnation stage of Erosion’s psychosocial theory. This stage involves answering the question “have I left my mark? “. According to Erikson, people in this stage are concerned with “generating or producing something that outlives you” .

People in this stage expressed interest in passing down their ideas to their children or to other members of society, like co-workers or students. Many people in this stage also become more concerned with helping future generation and begun to get involved in activities like parenting, teaching, mentoring or volunteering. According to research adults who have high levels of ” identity and intimacy are more likely than other adults to achieve generatively becoming caring people, committed parents, productive workers and mentors, and community leaders”.

Failure in this stage leads to stagnation, where a person is unsatisfied with their life and achievements. Erosion’s last psychosocial stage is integrity versus despair and answers the question “has my life been meaningful? “- According to Erikson, elderly adults in this stage try to find a sense of meaning to their lives and hey begin to face the inaudibility of their own impending death. Older adults who have “constructed a life story or narrative identity during their early adult years, they work on accepting it in old age as the only life they could have led”.

As a person reflects upon their life story, if they have lived richly and developed a sense of integrity they are able to come to terms with and begin to prepare for death. If the adult views their previous life events with regret, or unfavorable they may fail into despair and become fearful or anxious about their impending death. One way that elderly adults can be helped go gain a sense of integrity in their lives is through the process of life review where they reflect upon any unresolved conflicts they might have and try to find the meaning in their lives.

Research has shown that “elders who use the life review process display a stronger sense of ego integrity and better overall adjustment and well-being than those who do not. One way that elderly adults could assisted by their loved ones to complete life review would be to listen to their life Story and be sensitive to any unresolved conflicts they might express. During the moratorium period an adolescent begins to explore their beliefs and examine the alternatives that are available to them. Even though this period is often stressful and causes the adolescence anxiety this phase can be a positive experience.

This is because it provides them with the “opportunity to search, experiment, play the field, and try on different roles develop an identity, and emerge with commitments to politics, religion, a vocational goal and more clearly defined sex roles” . The last stage is the identity-achieved stage, and an adolescent in this stage has resolved their identity crisis and has determined their own identity by “carefully evaluating various alternatives and choices, and have come to conclusions and decisions on their own”.

People in this stage often experience ‘harmony within oneself and an acceptance of capacities, opportunities, and limitations and have a more realistic concept of goals”. Len this stage you have entered the identity- achieved stage a few years after graduated from high school. When I first graduated frothing school was still in the moratorium stage, because I was still trying to find out what I career wanted. I had already come to terms with who I was as a person and had set my ideological identity, however I still could not determine what I wanted out of my career.

While working in a Pharmacy, I realized this was what I wanted to do for the rest of my life. Now I know who I am and what I want out of life. I have determined what my career goals and the things that I need to do to achieve them. I am knowledgeable of the strengths I personally posses. While I am aware I posses limitations, I know how to work around them and I rely on my strengths to over come these limitation.

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