Sociology beginning

Sociology beginning

Society began its transition from traditional ways to present day living in the sass’s, and sociology was the reason for this transition. Four events led to the creation of sociology. Skepticism is one of the events that led to the creation of sociology arises from the French and American Revolution. This idea led peoples to disbelief in the monarchy being a divine nature. The ideas were Individualism, democracy, and freedom. The second event was the start of the industrial revolution, which brought down the small business owners by being able to produce bulk products at a much faster pace.

As a result of the industrial Revolution the third event occurred that led to sociology and that the was the Daily Life of people drastically changed, as people arrived into the cities they were welcomed with low pay, poverty, and dangerous working conditions (Heinlein 2011 The mixture of these events caused a major disruption in society. Up until this time people blamed the sky, gods, and mystical things for the way people acted, they did not test their assumptions. Luckily for human progression, the final event happened and that was science. The sciences made major breakthroughs in finding facts.

The introduction of the scientific method, which tested all theories in order to find evidence. A man named Augusta Comet suggested that society be examined through a scientific lens within sociology. This is when sociology was born. There are three main ways of viewing society, the perspectives are; Conflict Theory, symbolic interaction, and functional analysis. To begin, there are two level of analysis, Macro and Micro. Macro is a less intimate form of research, an example is looking at the larger group of society, whereas, micro analysis is a personal way of looking at individuals ND the interactions with society.

Conflict theorist and functional analysis use macro, and symbolic interactions use a micro. Conflict theorist think that people should get involved in changing their society. Sociologist Karl Marx is the one who came up with conflict theory, he believed that society is divided into two classes, one being the capitalist, “the bourgeoisie”, and the other being the working people, “the proletariat” (Heinlein 2011 An example of this perspective is the criminal justice system.

Conflict theorist believe that the criminal justice system is a way to keep the “proletariat” in check. This belief can be seen in the following passage: Conflict theorist stress that the power elite developed the legal system, which is used to stabilize the social order. It helps control the poor, who pose a threat to the powerful, for if they rebel as a group they dislodge the power elite from their place of privilege. To prevent this, the criminal justice system makes certain that heavy penalties come down on the poor (Heinlein et al. 011 :170). Conflict theorist use an applied source Of sociology believing people should get involved and solve the problems of society, unlike functional analysis who live to let society alone because it is a natural process. Functional analysis use a macro form of analysis. One of the sociologist from this perspective is Mile Druthers whose theory was that society is an organism made up of different parts. All these parts must work together to create harmony in society.

These parts Drunker explained are institutions, such as the police, the government, and the criminal justice system. If we did not have these different parts working together society would die. Other sociologist in this perspective are Richard Collard and Lloyd Olin who developed “strain hero”, which is how social values produce deviance (Heinlein 201 1:163). This idea is how people strive to reach the normal goals in life and get frustrated when road blocks are put in front of them so they resort to deviant behavior to try and survive.

An example would be a person getting arrested for a felony they did not commit and not having the money to hire a lawyer. The result is many roadblocks, leading to deviant behavior because it is the only way to survive. The next perspective is symbolic interactions. Symbolic interactions use a micro form of analysis which is a personal study of people and their interaction with society.. This perspective’s theory is that the behavior of society depends on the meaning of symbols. One analysis of this theory is by James Horton Cooley, which is called the “looking-glass self’.

This concept is that we define ourselves by the way we think people see us, for instance, a child being good or bad because they believe that’s the way people see them so they act that way. Another theory in symbolic interaction is “Dramaturgy”. Irving Coffman came up with this idea that we all play roles as if we were on a stage, there is a front stage and a backstage. The front stage is where we re refined and play our roles the way people think we should, and the back stage is where we let loose, relax and take a breather.

For example being at work would be the front stage while getting home after work would be the backstage where you relax. Another concept in symbolic interaction comes from sociologist Edwin Sutherland came up with “differential association”, which is a theory that states that people either conform or deviate depending on the messages received from a group, like family, gangs, and peer groups. Some may receive combined messages and end up remembering one more Han the other, an “excess of definitions as Sutherland stated it (Heinlein p. 57). The messages tilt towards one side more than the other thus creating the choice to be deviant or conforming. An example would be growing up in a biker gang, all you know is what you have lived, so you continue on a deviant path even though you know it is against society’s norms. In closing Sociology has brought a lot of insight on the behaviors of society. The three perspectives have interesting concepts on how society works. Conflict theory believes that society is made up of upper and lower class people.

Functional Analysis has their concept on society that it is ran by institutions. Finally is symbolic interaction which concept is society is works by symbols. If you think about these three concepts they are all right, because each one is true on how our society functions. Some perspectives may not be pleasant or easy to swallow but they are definitely the way our society has become.

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