Principal sociological perspectives

Principal sociological perspectives

This unit aims to enable learners to gain an understanding of the different sociological approaches that can be used when studying and how these approaches can be used to study health and social care. Unit introduction Sociology is the study of society, and is a method of enquiry and explanation.

In this unit learners will gain an understanding of sociology as a discipline and the different sociological perspectives. They will then consider the application of different sociological approaches to the understanding of a number of concepts within health and social care. This will include exploring the social dimension of health and illness. Sociologists argue that health and illness have two aspects to them.

The first of these is biological, and there are clearly distinct states of discomfort, pain and abnormality that can be considered to be ill health. The second aspect, however, involves how the concepts of health and illness are themselves considered, and sociologists consider the cultural dimensions of these concepts. Learners will also examine health inequalities among different groups of people in society, and the range of explanations that sociologists have suggested for these inequalities.

The unit will encourage learners to be reflective, and will be valuable to those learners intending to work with people in a caring capacity. It will also be useful for learners who intend to progress to study at a higher level. The sociological approach is embedded in several other units in the programmer and is extended In Unit 19: Applied Sociological Perspectives for Health and Social Care. Learning outcomes On completion of this unit a learner should: understand sociological perspectives 2 Understand sociological approaches to health and social care.

Deduced BEET Level 3 Nationals specification in Health and Social Care 1 -June 2010 C Deduced Limited 2010 Unit content 1 Understand sociological perspectives – Issue Terminology: social structures, egg the family, education system, health care services; social diversity, egg social class, gender, culture, ethnicity, age, locality; solicitation, egg norms, values, beliefs, roles, status Principle sociological perspectives: functionalism, Marxism, feminism, interactions, electives, postmodernism, ‘New Right’ 2 Understand sociological approaches to health and social care Application of sociological perspectives to health and social care: understanding different concepts of health and ill health; understanding patterns and trends in health and illness among different social groupings understanding different concepts of health and ill health: concepts of health (negative, positive, holistic, World Health Organization definition); models of health (biomedical, socio-medical); ill health (illness, disability, disease); the sick role; the clinical iceberg understanding patterns and trends in health and illness among different social groupings: measurement of health, egg morbidity rates, mortality rates, health events, disease incidence, disease prevalence, health surveillance; difficulties in measuring health; patterns and trends according to, egg social class, gender, ethnicity, age, locality; risk behavior; sociological explanations (artifact, natural/social selection, cultural/ behavioral, materialist/ structuralism) 1 -June 2010 @ Deduced Limited 2010 Assessment and grading criteria In order to pass this unit, the evidence that the learner presents for assessment needs to demonstrate that they can meet all the learning Issue outcomes for the unit. The assessment criteria for a pass grade describe the level of achievement required to pass this unit.

To achieve a pass grade the evidence must show that the learner is able to: To achieve a merit grade the evidence must show that, in addition to the pass criteria, the learner is able to: explain the principal sociological perspectives [IEEE; IEEE; Cue; CT” SMS] MI assess the biomedical and socio-medical models of health explain different sociological approaches to health and ill [ACT] explain patterns and trends n health and illness among different social groupings. [IEEE, IEEE, ACT; SMS] MM use different sociological perspectives to discuss patterns and trends of health and illness in two different social groups. To achieve a distinction grade the evidence must show that, in addition to the pass and merit criteria, the learner is able to: evaluate different sociological explanations for patterns and trends of health and illness in two different social groups. PLOTS: This summary references where applicable, in the square brackets, the elements of the personal, learning and thinking skills which are embedded in he assessment of this unit.

By achieving the criteria, learners will have demonstrated effective application of the referenced elements of the skills. II – independent enquirers RL -? reflective learners SMS – self-managers CT – creative thinkers Key TWO -? team workers PEP – effective participators 1 -June 2010 0 Deduced Limited 2010 3 Essential guidance for tutors Delivery This unit should be delivered using a mixture of tutor input and learner-led activity, such as research, role play and case studies and, where appropriate, guest speakers from a variety of health and social care settings and other appropriate practitioners. Initially, learners should explore the principal sociological perspectives and their relevance to approaches to health and ill health.

Learners could work in small groups to identify these different sociological perspectives, and then apply them to the study of health and ill health. From this information learners will move on to assess both the biomedical and socio-medical models of health and, where appropriate, supported by the tutor apply these models to their lives so far and also within the health and social care sector. Once learners are familiar with the principal sociological perspectives, approaches to health and ill health, and both the biomedical and socio- medical models of health, they should progress to investigate patterns and trends in health and illness among different social groupings.

Many learners find this very interesting and they will be able to source up-to-date patterns and trends in health and illness by accessing ‘social trends’ from the Office Of National Statistics website. They will then investigate these different patterns and trends by applying the different sociological approaches already studied. They should focus on two different social groupings for this. They will evaluate this for a distinction grade. It is important that Pl , PA and MI are delivered and covered before PA, MM and Del , as without these three initial criteria being covered/achieved learners will be unable to successfully approach PA. Learners should be given opportunities, and time, to develop and practice their research skills when carrying out their investigations for this unit.

Arrangements for interactions within the workplace should be discussed and agreed with the tutor and work proviso/mentor. In addition to learners accessing a health or social care setting for workplace experience it would be very useful to bring the world of the workplace into the classroom, giving learners applied learning opportunities and also the opportunity to question practitioners. Therefore time should be put aside for learners to prepare questions for visiting practitioners before their visit to get the most out of these opportunities. Learners should be encouraged at all times to be reflective and to develop an awareness of their feelings, thoughts and experiences relating to the different models, patterns and trends of lath and ill health. Deduced BEET Level 3 Nationals specification in Health and Social Care – Issue 1 – June 2010 Deduced Limited 2010 Outline learning plan The outline learning plan has been included in this unit as guidance and can be used in conjunction with the programmer of suggested assignments. The outline learning plan demonstrates one way in planning the delivery and assessment of this unit. Topic and suggested assignments/activities and/ assessment Unit introduction. Guest speaker: for example local authority practitioner working in the health department (ideally strategic director or similar). Learning outcome 1 Tutor input: sociological perspectives to study. Buzz group/learner research: different principal sociological perspectives. Case studies: on health and ill health and the use of the different models of health -? biomedical and commercial.

Discussion: the different perspectives and learner experiences of attitudes to health and ill health. Assignment 1: Sociological approaches (Pl, PA, MI) Produce an information booklet covering an: explanation of the principal sociological perspectives explanation of the different sociological approaches to health and ill health assessment of the biomedical and socio-medical models of health. Learning outcome 2 Tutor input: sociological approaches to health and social care. Learner research: investigate national and local social trends regarding health and ill health. Guest speakers: Q&A session with a researcher involved in using national and local social trend statistics on health an ill health.

Case studies: of different patterns and trends of health and ill health. Learner research: investigate social trends of health via Office of National Statistics (website). Assignment 2: Patterns and trends in health and illness (PA, MM, Del) Plan and take part in a investigation covering an: explanation of the patterns and trends in health and illness among different social groupings discussion (using the different sociological perspectives) of the patterns and trends of health and illness in two different social groups evaluation of the different sociological explanations for patterns and trends of health and illness in two different social groups. Unit review and assessment.

Assessment This unit should be delivered and assessed with as much employer -? Issue engagement/workplace learning opportunities as is appropriate and relevant. The learning outcomes can be met through two different assignments where learners are asked to present their evidence using a variety of methods. Assignment 1 could be presented in the form of an information booklet. This can be produced however learners prefer, but it must be explanatory in nature and notes descriptive to meet the requirements of Pl . Assignment 2 could take the form of a report/essay or presentation as appropriate. Learning outcome 1 is achieved by meeting p 1 and MI and learning outcome 2 by meeting PA, PA, MM and 01.

Assignments set can be assessed whenever is the most appropriate time the tutor and learners, the order in which they should be completed is important, Assignment 1 should be completed first in order for learners to have the knowledge required to be able to approach Assignment 2. In order to pass the unit learners must achieve a pass grade for each learning outcome, all three pass criteria are spread across both assignments, and both assignments must be covered and assessed. All three pass criteria must be achieved before merit grade criteria can be assessed. The merit criteria must be achieved before distinction grade criteria can be assessed. Pass grade learners will, on the whole, produce evidence that is an explanation.

Merit grade learners, in addition to the above, will also produce evidence that shows they have carried out an assessment and examination. Distinction grade learners, in addition to the above, will also include an evaluation in their evidence. Learners may like to carry out their plans and investigations/research in small friendship groups, this is acceptable but final evidence for assessment must be individually produced pieces of work. Tutors are encouraged to embed personal, learning and thinking skills (PLOTS) or as many opportunities as is appropriate within classroom-based activities, applied learning/conceptualized activities and assessment. 1 -June 2010 Deduced Limited 2010 Programmer of suggested assignments The table below shows a programmer of suggested assignments that cover the pass, merit and distinction criteria in the assessment and grading grid. This is for guidance and it is recommended that centers either write their own assignments or adapt any Deduced assignments to meet local needs and resources. Criteria covered Assignment title Scenario Pl. PA, MI Sociological approaches You work for local overspent. Patterns and trends in health and illness At work you have been asked to investigate the need for a new, larger health centre for the locality. Assessment method Information booklet. Observation report/essay. You ultimately need to investigate the social trends regarding health and illness in your locality to discover whether there is a need for a new health centre. You will share your information with your colleagues. Links to National Occupational Standards (NO’S), other BEET units, other BEET qualifications and other relevant units and qualifications This unit forms part f the BEET Health and Social Care sector suite (see Appendix A) and has links with units from other qualifications in that suite. See Appendix E for NO’S links and Appendix G for a mapping of the INS Knowledge and Skills F-remark against particular units in this qualification.

Essential resources Learners will require access to library facilities, including relevant texts, professional magazines and journals, CD Rooms, current newspapers and CIT facilities including the internet, with tutor guidance to avoid inappropriate use. Guest speakers who work in the statutory, private and voluntary sectors ill enhance learning. Social trends, particularly regarding health patterns and trends, are an essential resource and can be accessed via a central library or the Office for National Statistics website. Employer engagement and vocational contexts Visits from speakers employed within the health and social care sectors and representatives of particular bodies in society associated with health inequalities and trends will enhance learner understanding. Learners would also benefit from visits to organizations. The local authority will be useful for this unit.

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