Sociology and Political Science

Sociology and Political Science

As a mother of social sciences Sociology has close and intimate relationship with all other social science. Hence it has close relationship with political science as well. Their relationship is so close and intimate that led G. E. C. Catalina to remark “Political Science and Sociology are two faces or aspects of the same figure. ” Similarly other scholars could not find any difference between the two disciplines. Sociology is a Science of society. It is a science of social groups and social institutions.

It is a general science of society. It tidies human interaction and inter-relations their conditions and consequences. Political Science is a science of state and Government It studies power, political processes, political systems, types of government and international relations. It deals with social groups organized under the sovereign Of the State. In the words Of Paul Junket, “Political Science is that part of social science which treats the foundation of the state and principles of government. ” It studies the political activities of man.

It only studies the organized society. However their inter-relationship and inter-dependence can e known from interdependence and mutual relationship. Sociology depends on political science. In the words of Morris Ginsberg, “Historically Sociology has its main roots in politics and philosophy of history. ” Sociology greatly benefited by the books written by political scientists like Plato, Aristotle and Cattily such as The Republic, The Politics and Arthritis respectively. Each and every social problem has a political cause. Political Science is a part of sociology.

Hence sociology depends on political science to comprehend itself. TO understand different political events sociology takes the help from political science. Sociology to draw its conclusions depends on political science. Any change in the political system or nature of power structure brings changes in society. Hence Sociology takes the help of political science to understand the changes in society. Hence both are inter-dependent. Similarly political science also depends on Sociology. Political Science is a part of sociology. To understand the part it is necessary to understand the whole.

Almost all political problems has a social cause and for the solution of these political problems political science takes the help of sociology. State frames its rules, isolations and laws on the basis of social customs, tradition and values. Without Sociological background the study of political science will be incomplete. Political Scientists largely benefited by the researches and research methods of the Sociologist. Some consider political science as a branch of Sociology. State is considered as a social group hence is a subject of Sociology. Besides, there are some common topics which are being studied by both the subjects.

These topics are War, Propaganda, authority, communal riots and law. With the help of both political science and sociology a new abject comes into existence which is known as political sociology. Some political events like war are also significant social events. Thus both political science and sociology contribute to each other. But inspire of their inter- relationship and inter-dependence both the sciences differ from each other in the following way. Differences: (1) Sociology is a science of society and social relationship whereas political science is a science of state and government. 2) The scope of sociology is very wide but scope of political science is limited. (3) Sociology is a general science but political science is a special science. 4) Sociology studied organized, unrecognized and disorganized society whereas political science studies only politically organized society. (5) Sociology studies the social activities of man whereas political science studies political activities of man. (6) Sociology is a new or young science but political science is an older science. (7) Sociology studies man as a social animal whereas political science studies man as a political animal. 8) Sociology studies both formal and informal relations whereas political science studies only formal relations. (9) Sociology analyses both conscious and unconscious activities of man whereas lattice science analyses only conscious activities of man. (10) Sociology deals with all forms of association whereas political science deals with only one form of association named state. Sociology and History: As a mother of social sciences sociology has close and intimate relationship with all other social sciences. Accordingly it has close relationship with history.

Because present society bears symbols of past. Relationship between the two is so close and intimate that scholars like G. Von Below have refused to acknowledge sociology as a science distinct from history. Sociology is the science of society. It is a study of systems of social action and their inter- relations. Sociology is a science of social groups and social institutions. History studies the important past events and incidents. It records men past life and life of societies in a systematic and chronological order. It also tries to find out the causes of past events.

It also studies the past political, social and economic events Of the world. It not only studies the past but also establishes relations with present and future. That is why it is said that “History is the microscope of the past, the horoscope of the present and telescope of the future. However, both the sciences are closely inter-related and interdependent on each other. Both study the same human society. Their mutual dependence led G. H. Howard to remark that, “History is past Sociology and Sociology is present history. ” Both takes help from each other.

At the same time one depends on the other for its own comprehension. History helps and enriches Sociology. History is the store house of knowledge from which Sociology gained a lot. History provides materials sociologists use. History is a record of past social matters, social customs and information about different stages of life. Sociology uses this information. Books written by historians like A. Toynbee are of great use for Sociologists. To know the impact Of a particular past event sociology depends on history. Similarly Sociology also provides help to history and enriches it.

A historian greatly benefited from the research conducted by Sociologists. Historians now study caste, class and family by using sociological data. Sociology provides the background for the study of history. Now history is being studied from Sociological angle. Every historical event has a social cause or social background. To understand that historical event history need the help from Sociology and Sociology helps history in this respect. Sociology provides facts on which historians rely on. Thus history and Sociology are mutually dependent on each other.

History is now being studied from Sociological angle and Sociology also now studied from historical point of view. Historical sociology now became a new branch of Sociology which depends on history. Similarly Sociological history is another specialized subject which based on both the Sciences. But in spite of the above close relationship and inter- dependence both the sciences differ from each other from different angles which are described below. Differences: (1) Sociology is a science of society and is concerned with the present society.

But history deals with the past events and studies the past society. (2) Sociology is a modern or new subject whereas history is an older social science. (3) Sociology is abstract whereas history is concrete in nature. (4) The scope of Sociology is very wide whereas the scope of history is limited. Sociology includes history within its scope. (5) Sociology is an analytical science whereas history is a descriptive science. (6) Attitude of sociology and history differ from each other. Sociology studies a particular event as a social hometown whereas history studies a particular event in its entirety. 7) Sociology is a general science whereas history is a special science. Sociology and Economics: Sociology is mother of all social sciences. Hence it has close relationship with all social sciences and so also with Economics. The relationship of sociology with economics is very close, intimate and personal. There exists close relationship between these two because economic relationships bear a close relation to social activities and relationships. Likewise social relationships are also affected by economic relationships. Economic activities to a great extent re social activities.

Hence both are mutually related. Sociology is a science of society. It is concerned with the association of human beings. Sociology is the study of human interactions and inter-relations their conditions and consequences. But Economics deals with economic activities of man. It is a science of wealth and choice. According to Proof. Robbins Economics is a social “science which studies human behavior in relation to his unlimited ends and scarce means which have alternative uses. ” It is concerned with the activities of man such as production, consumption, distribution and exchange.

It also tidies the structure and functions of different economic organizations like banks, markets etc. It is concerned with the material needs of man as well as his material welfare. However, there exists a great deal Of inter-relationship between these two sciences. Both are interdependent and inter-related with each other. Because of this inter-relationship Thomas opines that, “Economics is, in fact, but one branch of Sociology. ” Similarly Silverman opines Economics is regarded as offshoot of sociology which studies the general principles of all social relations.

Their interrelationships are as follows: Economics takes the alp of Sociology. For its own comprehension economics takes the help of sociology and depends on it. Economics is a part of Sociology hence without the help from sociology economics can’t understand itself completely. Economics is concerned with material welfare of man which is common welfare. Economic welfare is a part of social welfare. For the solution of different economic problems such as inflation, poverty, unemployment etc. Economists takes the help of sociology and takes into account the social events of that particular time.

At the same time society controls the economic activities of man. Economics is greatly benefited by the research conducted by Sociologists like Max-Weber, Parent etc. Some economists also consider economic change as an aspect of social change. Economic draws its generalization basing on the data provided by Sociology. Thus economics cannot go far or develop without the help of Sociology. Similarly Sociology also takes the help from economics. Economics greatly enriches sociological knowledge. An economic factor greatly influences each and every aspects of social life.

Economics is a part of sociology hence without the help of economics we can’t understand sociology properly. Knowledge and research in the field of economics greatly contributes to sociology. Each and every social problem has an economic cause. For the solution of social problems like dowry, suicide etc. Sociologists take the help from economics. Marx opines economic relations constitute the foundation of Society. Economic factors play a very important role in every aspect of our social life that is why Sociologists concerned with economic institutions.

For this reason Sociologists like Spencer, Weber, Druthers and others have taken the help from economics in their analysis Of social relationships. Thus both sociology ND economics are very closely related with each other. There are some problems which are being studied by both sociologists and economists. Economic changes results in social changes and vice versa. However, inspire of the above closeness, inter-relationship and inter-dependence both the sciences have certain differences which are described below: Differences: (1) Sociology is a science of society and social relationships whereas economics is a science of wealth and choice. 2) Sociology is a much younger science which has very recent origin whereas economics is comparatively an older science. 3) Sociology is an abstract science whereas economics is concrete in nature. (4) Sociology is a general social science whereas economics is a special social science. (5) The scope of sociology is very wide whereas the scope of economics is very limited. (6) Sociology is concerned with the social activities Of man whereas economics is concerned with the economic activities of man. (7) Society is studied as a unit of study in Sociology whereas man is taken as a unit of study in economics. 8) Both Sociology and economics differ from each other in respect of the methods and techniques they use for their study. Sociology and Psychology: Sociology is a science of society. Hence it is closely related to other social sciences and so also with psychology. Sociology and Psychology are very closely interlinked interrelated and interdependent. Relationship between the two is so close and intimate that Psychologist like Karl Pearson refuses to accept both as special science. Both depend on each other for their own comprehension.

Their relationship will be clear if we analyze their inter- relationship and mutual dependency. Sociology is a science of social phenomena and social relationship. It is a science of social group and social institutions. It is a science of collective behavior. It studies human behavior in groups. But psychology is a science of mind or mental processes. It is a science of human behavior. It analyses attitudes, emotions, perception, process of learning and values of individuals and process of personality formation in society. In the words of Toothless ‘Psychology is the positive science of human experience and behavior. But both the sciences are closely related to each other which can be known from the following. Sociology receives help from Psychology. Psychology is a part of sociology hence thou the help from Psychology Sociology can’t understand itself fully and properly. There are many psychologists like Freud, MacDougal and others who have enrich Sociology in many respects. They opines that the whole social life could be reduced finally to psychological forces. Each and every social problems and social phenomenon must have a psychological basis for the solution of which sociology requires the help from psychology.

A new branch of knowledge has developed with the combination of sociology and psychology which is known as social psychology. Similarly, psychology depends on Sociology to comprehend itself fully. Psychology also requires help from sociology in many cases. As human mind and personality is being influenced by social environment, culture, customs and traditions hence psychology take the help from Sociology to understand this. To understand human nature and behavior properly psychology depends on sociology. There are many Psychological problems which must have a Social Cause.

Psychology requires the help from Sociology to understand these social problems. A research in Sociology richly contributes to psychology. Contributions and theories of many Sociologists also are of great help to Psychologists. Thus Sociology and Psychology are mutually dependent on each other. One can’t comprehend itself without the help from others. Besides there are some common area of study such as social disorientation, public opinion etc. Which are being studied by both Sociologists and Psychologists. Social Psychology a branch of Psychology is developed with the combination Of the two.

In the words Of Crotch and Crucified Social Psychology is the science of behavior of the individuals in society. Differences: However, inspire of the mutual relationship and dependence both the sciences differ from each other in the following ways. 1) Sociology is a science of society but Psychology is a science of mind. (2) Scope of Sociology is wide whereas scope of Psychology is limited. (3) Society is the unit of study in sociology but individual is the unit of study in case of Psychology. (4) Sociology studies social processes whereas Psychology studies mental processes. 5) Sociology studies and analyses human behavior from Sociological angle whereas psychology studies and analyses human behavior from Psychological angles. Sociology and Anthropology: Sociology is the mother of all social sciences. Hence it has close and intimate legislations with Anthropology. The relationship is so close that Anthropologists like AH. Kookier consider Sociology and Anthropology as twin sisters. They often appear as two names for the same subject. R. Redefined recognizes the closeness between these two social sciences. Sociology is a science of society.

It studies behavior of man in groups. The term Sociology has been derived from the Latin word ‘Socio’ means society, companion or association and the Greek word ‘logos’ means study or science. Hence Sociology is concerned with the association of human beings. It is a science that deals with social groups. Similarly the term Anthropology is derived from two Greek words ‘anthrop’ meaning man and ‘logos’ meaning study or science. Accordingly anthropology means study of man. As a science of man it deals with man, his works and behavior. Anthropology studies the biological and cultural development of man.

Anthropology has a wide field of study which can be broadly divided into three main divisions such as physical anthropology. Archeology cultural anthropology and social anthropology. Physical anthropology studies bodily characteristics of early man and thereby try to understand both primitive and modern cultures. Archeology studies cultures Of prehistoric period. This study facilitates sociologists to make a comparative study of present social structure. It is concerned with the early periods of human existence. It reconstructs the origin, spread and evolution of culture by examining the remains of the past societies.

Social anthropology deals with the behavior of man in social institutions. Social anthropology and sociology are one and the same. Even Pritchard considers social anthropology as a branch of Sociology. Mutual Help: However there exists a very close and intimate relationship between Sociology and Anthropology. Both contribute to the growth of others. Both are mutually related to each other. Of course Sociology studies society whereas anthropology studies man. But as man and society are mutually interrelated hence it is very difficult to distinguish two.

However their close relationship can be known from the following. Anthropology contributes to the growth Of Sociology. Without the help Of anthropology the study Of Sociology can’t be complete. It is a part of Sociology. Anthropology provides knowledge about ancient societies. To have a comprehensive understanding f present society Sociology takes the help of anthropology. Contributions of many Anthropologists like R. Brown, Linton, Mead and Pritchard enriches sociological knowledge’s. The origin of family, marriage, religion etc. Can be better understood through anthropological knowledge.

The concepts like cultural area, cultural traits, and cultural lag etc. Sociology accept from anthropology. Sociology accepts the anthropological conclusion that ‘racial superiority is not responsible for mental development. ‘ Thus Sociology is greatly benefited by anthropological studies. Similarly, Sociology contributes icily towards the growth of anthropology. Anthropology accepts many concepts of Sociology. Research and contributions of many Sociologists like Mile Druthers, Herbert Spencer is of great help to anthropology. Anthropologists greatly benefited by the Sociological researches.

Ideas and conclusions of Sociology contribute to the research in anthropology. Thus there exists a great deal of relationship between Sociology and Anthropology. Both study human society and both are concerned with all kinds of social groups like families, friends, tribes etc. Many of the ideas and concepts are seed in both the discipline. Hence both are interrelated and interdependent. But in spite of the inter-relationship both differ from each other. Differences: Sociology is a science of society whereas anthropology is a science of man and his behavior.

The scope of Sociology is very wide whereas the scope of Anthropology is very limited. Because anthropology is a part of Sociology. Sociology studies society as a whole whereas anthropology studies man as a part of society. Sociology studies civilizations which are vast and dynamic on the other hand Anthropology studies cultures which are small and static. Sociology studies modern, civilized and complex societies whereas Anthropology studies ancient and non-literate societies. Sociology is concerned with social planning whereas anthropology is not concerned with social planning.

On the basis Of social planning sociology make suggestion for future but anthropology do not make any suggestion for future. In the words of Chuckhole, “The Sociological attitude has tended towards the Practical and Present, the anthropological towards pure understanding of the past. ” Sociology is the scientific study of social behavior, its origins, development, organization, and institutions. It is a social science that uses various methods of empirical investigation and critical analysis to develop a body of knowledge about social order, social disorder and social change.

A goal for many sociologists is to conduct research which may be applied directly to social policy and welfare, while others focus primarily on refining the theoretical understanding of social processes. Subject matter ranges from the micro level of individual agency and interaction to the macro level of systems and the social Structure. The traditional focuses of sociology include social stratification, social class, social mobility, religion, colonization, law, sexuality and deviance.

As all spheres of human activity are affected by the interplay between social structure and individual agency, sociology has gradually expanded its focus to further subjects, such as health, medical, military and penal institutions, the Internet, education, and the role of social activity in the development of scientific knowledge. The range of social scientific methods has also expanded. Social researchers draw upon a variety of qualitative and quantitative techniques. The linguistic and cultural turns of the mid-;ninetieth century led to increasingly interpretative, hermeneutic, and philosophic approaches to the analysis of society.

Conversely, recent decades have seen the rise of new analytically, mathematically and computationally rigorous techniques, such as agent- based modeling and social network analysis. Social research informs politicians and policy makers, educators, planners, lawmakers, administrators, developers, business magnates, managers, social workers, non-governmental organizations, non-profit organizations, and people interested in resolving social issues in general. There is often a great deal of crossover between social research, market research, and other tactical fields.

Classification Sociology should not be confused with various general social studies courses which bear little relation to sociological theory or social science research methodology. The US National Science Foundation, classifies Sociology as a STEM Field. History Bin Chalked (1332-1406) Sociological reasoning predates the foundation of the discipline. Social analysis has origins in the common stock of Western knowledge and philosophy, and has been carried out from as far back as the time of ancient Greek philosopher Plato if not before.

The origin of the survey, I. E. The collection of information from a sample of individuals, can be traced back to at least the Doomsday Book in 1 while ancient philosophers such as Confucius wrote on the importance of social roles. There is evidence of early sociology in medieval Islam. Some consider Bin Chalked, a 14th-century Arab Islamic scholar from North Africa, to have been the first sociologist and father of sociology;[1 1] his Macadamia was perhaps the first work to advance social-scientific reasoning nonsocial cohesion and social conflict. 1 7] The word sociology (or “sociologist”) is derived from both Latin and Greek origins. The Latin word: socio, “companion”; the suffix -logy, “the study of” from Greek ;Ionian from ?quo, goes, “word”, “knowledge”. It was first coined in 1 780 by the French systematically-Joseph Sieges (1748-?1836) in an unpublished manuscript. [1 8] Sociology was later defined independently by the Proprietorship of science, Augusta Comet (1798-1857), in 1838. [19] Comet used this term to describe a new way of looking at society. 20] Comet had earlier used the term “social physics”, but that had subsequently been appropriated by others, most notably the Belgian statistician Adolph Quieter. Comet endeavored to unify history, psychology and economics through the scientific understanding of the social realm. Writing shortly after the malaise of the French Revolution, he proposed that social ills could be remedied through sociological positivism, an epistemological approach outlined in The Course in Positive Philosophy [1830-1842] and A General View of positivism (1848). Mote believed a positivist stage would mark the final era, after conjectural theological and metaphysical phases, in the progression of human understanding. [21] In observing the circular dependence of theory and observation in science, and having classified the sciences, Comet may be regarded as the first philosopher of science in the modern sense of the term. [22] Augusta cornet (1798-1857) Comet gave a powerful impetus to the development of sociology, an impetus which bore fruit in the later decades of the nineteenth century.

To say this is certainly not to claim that French sociologists such as Druthers were devoted disciples of the high priest of positivism. But by insisting on the irreducibility of each of his basic sciences to the particular science of sciences which it presupposed in the hierarchy and by emphasizing the nature of sociology as he scientific study of social phenomena Comet put sociology on the map. To be sure, [its] beginnings can be traced back well beyond Nonentities, for example, and to Concrete, not to speak of Saint-Simon, Comet’s immediate predecessor.

But Comet’s clear recognition of sociology as a particular science, with a character of its own, justified Druthers in regarding him as the father or founder of this science, in spite of the fact that Druthers did not accept the idea of the three states and criticized Comet’s approach to sociology. [23] -?Frederick Cobblestone, A History of Philosophy: IX Modern Philosophy 1974 Karl Marx (1818-1883) Both Augusta Comet and Karl Marx (1818-1883) set out to develop scientifically justified systems in the wake of Europeanindustrialization and colonization, informed by various key movements in the philosophies Of history and science.

Marx rejected Contemn positivism[citation needed] but in attempting to develop a science of society nevertheless came to be recognized as a founder of sociology as the word gained wider meaning. For Isaiah Berlin, Marx may be regarded as the ‘true father” of modern sociology, “in so far as anyone can claim the To have given clear and unified answers in familiar empirical terms o those theoretical questions which most occupied men’s minds at the time, and to have deduced from them clear practical directives without creating obviously artificial links between the two, was the principle achievement of Mar’s theory.

The sociological treatment of historical and moral problems, which Comet and after him, Spencer and Taint, had discussed and mapped, became a precise and concrete study only when the attack of militant Marxism made its conclusions a burning issue, and so made the search for evidence more zealous and the attention to method more intense. [25] Isaiah Berlin, Karl Marx: His Life and Environment 1937 Herbert Spencer (1820-1903) Herbert Spencer (27 April 1820 – 8 December 1903) was one of the most popular and influential 1 9th century sociologists.

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