Sociology and crime

Sociology and crime

This is where there is conformity of norms and values particular to a society allowing for cohesion among its members. Deviance and Crime Deviance: ; This is any act that defies the social norms of a society which will in turn receive disapproval from that society. ; Deviance can however be classified as criminal or non-criminal. ;Deviance is dependent on the culture of a society and the era. ; Some acts Of deviance are universal. Crime: ; This is any act that violates the laws within a society. ; This is a category of evince. These acts are punished by authoritative means. ; Criminal acts are relevant to society’s culture and the era. 1. Biological Explanation 2. Psychological Explanation 3. Theoretical Explanation CLC Functionalist View Thomas Hobbes was the first to address this concept. He is a philosopher from the 1 7th century. His theory was based around the time during and after the English civil war which occurred around (1642-51). His theory suggested that human behavior was one of that which is based on their natural characteristics of being selfish and competitive which can cause chaos n society.

He suggests that a strong governing body could enforce this conformity. Mile Druthers (1893, 191 2) Agreed with Hobbes in that humans have unlimited desires but however disagreed with his assumption that a strong government alone would implement accepted behaviors but that social institutions should arrange such moral behavioral codes and that individuals accept this. With this acceptance a collective consciousness would therefore exist which in turn allows social order to occur naturally. Druthers discusses the aspects of organic and mechanical solidarity.

He explains that individuals Of a small society share similar norms, values, beliefs, culture and engage in similar economic occupations. Therefore there is more consensus seen here. This is found in a mechanical society. Whereas in an organic society where diversity in economic roles occur the norms and values differ and individualistic interests are more prevalent. Tailcoat Parsons His observation was that in a modern organized society there are various distinguished institutions each with its own function to allow for some consensus in society.

However eventually a general system of behaviors develop based on the societies value system so that although there is a difference in structure among each there would be some means of cooperation among each institution . Criticisms 1. Functionalists exaggerate the amount of value consensus in societies. They ignore factors such as race class gender religion and historical events. 2. Functionalist disregard the amount of conflict within a society as they disagree with Marxist Theorists 3. Disregards the fact that order operates primarily in the interest of the ruling class.

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