Sociology

Sociology

Druthers was one of the first people to explain the existence and quality of different parts of a society by the role they played in keeping society healthy and balanced. This is known as functionalism. Criticisms to functionalism – Does not address the problems found in society. Highlights areas Of agreement, positive functions and teamwork. Functionalism believes that the way people behave in the result of the solicitation process not because of the choices we CHOOSE to make. There is no explanation or reasons for bad behavior or even criminal behavior.

Marxism – Marxism is a structuralism model as well as being a inflict model. This idea was first developed by Karl Marx. He thought that an individuals behavior was molded by society but he also believed that the economic system defined society and peoples places within it. Marx believed there were two social classes; one being Bourgeois or Capitalists which were the small powerful group that owned factories and other places of employment; and the other being the Proletariat which was a larger group of workers that the Bourgeois employed.

His opinion was that these two social group would always be in some sort of conflict e. G. The owners of the equines wanting to make higher profit and the employees wanting higher wages. This is the reason Marxism is known as the conflict model. His thoughts were the conflict would lead to a revolution. Conflict was very obvious between the Bourgeois and the Capitalists due to the relationship been them being unequal. Marxist believed that the Bourgeois had power in other social institutions and they help mould society due to them controlling the media and the legal system and their ideas influencing school curriculums.

The values and attitudes of the ruling class are passed through the solicitations process rather than the value system of functionalists. The majority of the Proletariat don’t realism they are being taken advantage of by or that they’re serving the Bourgeois rather than their own class. False consciousness lack of awareness by the Polarity and is used to explain why when interest conflict with each other, rarely do they erupt into actual conflict. Feminism – Definition: The belief that women should be treated as equals to men due to having the same intellectual potential.

These people can be male or female even though this is mainly associated with women. Feminism revolves around he fact that just because our bodies are designed to perform certain things, biological elements shouldn’t dictate intellectual and social functions and rights. Feminism also indicates that people are entitled to freedom and rights including civil rights. Discrimination should not be made at all whether its based on gender, sexual orientation, skin color, ethnicity, religion, culture or lifestyle.

Marxist Feminism: Marxist feminists view women (especially the working class) as oppressed by society and men. Women produce the next generation of workers. They meet the emotional, physical and social needs of heir children so that they will be ready to work in factories or offices when they’re older. They support their partners and husbands by cooking them meals, cleaning their houses and looking after the children without any pay. They are dominated by their husbands. Without this domestic help, the family would not be ready to work.

Radical Feminism: For radical feminists, it is men, not capitalists who control women. Family is a male-controlled institution and men are head of the family. Solicitation of girls as future housewives and mothers is a form of oppression, which is a characteristic of he nuclear family. Men hold positions of power and make decisions on behalf of Women and without their input and opinions. Liberal Feminism: Liberal feminists argue that changes have taken place such as Representation of the People Act 1 928 – women allowed to vote on equal terms with men, the Equal Pay Act 1970 and Equal Opportunities Act 1975.

Liberal feminism concentrates on women having the ability and right to maintain their equality through being responsible for their own actions and choices. The belief of the liberal feminist is that women will change society. The liberal feminist also lived that the equality of men and women can only be achieved by changes being brought through political and legal organizations. Some of the main problems of liberal feminism include abortions rights, sexual harassment, voting rights, education, cheap childcare and cheap health care.

Interactions Interactions is when people look at human personalities that are formed by their interactions with others. Society is constantly changing as the standards of behavior change and how we measure ourselves changes too. The disadvantage to this is that it doesn’t explain where the values come from ND how society continues to function and not function. Interactions study how people interact with each other within small groups and they focus on how they influence individual behavior and shape society.

The groups studied may be teenage gangs, staff, patients or just social interactions in classrooms. Interactions may ask how people see themselves, do some people have more power than others, who are the formal leaders and are there any informal leaders that have power in the group. Interactions believe people are influenced by the solicitation process but choose how to behave. They focus on our view and thoughts on ourselves in the social world. They focus on thoughts and actions of individuals.

Collectivism – Collectivism is an approach to providing health and social care services that is provided by the government to provide support and care for vulnerable people. This is funded through taxes and national insurance. This differs from the New Right because they think of welfare to be the responsibility of the individual and their family and they believe that a minimum role should be played by the state. Collectivism and the New Right are examples of political espouses to the roles of government in society for our purpose, their response to meeting identified areas of welfare need.

In every society there are people who are vulnerable whether its children, adults, the elderly, people with physical impairments or mental health needs. In some societies these peoples family may be responsible for the care of them. In other societies people may rely on religious groups, the commune or the local community to care for them. The country has played a role in the care of vulnerable people in Britain since the poor Law was passed in 1601. Although this was the case, he government only started playing an important role in the support of vulnerable people in the 1 9th century.

There has been an agreement that is it the government responsibility for providing welfare for those living in poverty, giving them access to a wide range of benefits such as working tax credits, child tax credits, housing benefit, SEA and pension benefits etc. It is also the governments responsibility to fight disease though the NASH. Post Modernism – Post Modernism is a way of understanding the rapid changes that take place within our society. Some Post Modernists believe that family and elisions values are no longer established institutions and believe there is no such thing as a ‘typical family’.

Due to the constant changes, Post Modernists believe that structural perspectives like functionalism and Marxism no longer help us to understand society. It has become more and more common for both individuals and groups of people to make their own lifestyle choices and social institutions have broken down. The New Right – The New Right is a group of people that believe it is an individuals own responsibility to support their family. Until the election of Margaret Thatcher and the Conservative overspent in 1 979, the post war collectivist approach to welfare had remained in place and was never seriously challenged or questioned.

This government believed that the state should only play a small role in welfare provisions and that welfare should be the responsibility of each individual and their families. The New Right group regarded welfare support as supporting a dependency culture. This government also believed that welfare state would produce a society in which people became reliant upon state benefits rather than taking responsibility and planning for the future of themselves and their families.

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