Sociology

Sociology

Using material from Item A and elsewhere, assess the view that working-class children under-achieve because they are culturally deprived. Cultural deprivation is the theory that many working-class and black children are inadequately socializes and are therefore lacking in the culture which is deemed as being right, this is things such as if their families don’t instill the value of deferred gratification. Which is a government policy about the lack of underachievement. Many sociologists argue that if there is a lack in your family structure and your, cultural, social and soft skills their child is more keel to underachieve.

There are many arguments both agreeing and disagreeing with this, which is still a continuing idea in the present day. Many children are saw as being underachievers if they have not received the right solicitation to make them culturally aware. Often, the intellectual development of a child is seen as being vital in the earlier years of a person’s life, purely because it is the period of their life that they will take the most in and start to understand new thing I. E. A child’s ability to solve problems.

J. W. B Douglas 1 964 found that working class children scored lower on tests to hose of middle class, he said that this was due to the fact working class parents are less likely to support their child’s intellectual development through reading with them etc. Bernstein and Young 1 967 both argue that middle class families will be able to buy toys which stimulate their child’s mind, whereas the working class may struggle to buy them equipment and clothes, and are less likely to buy them stimulating toys.

Language is also associated in a child’s progress into being able to learn. Basil Bernstein 1975 identified two different types of language which is used throughout the classes. The elaborated code which is used by members of the middle class and uses more complex sentences, this is used commonly by teachers and exam questions. Early solicitation is what can distinguish whether your child will speak in the elaborated code or the restricted code. The restricted code on the other hand, is typically used by the working class, and has a more limited range of vocabulary.

When using the restricted code, the speaker often assumes that the listener will have shared experiences with them, which makes the working class children find it harder to grasp the idea of the elaborated code. Bernstein argues that working class pupils fail not because they are culturally deprived, but because schools fail to teach them how to use the elaborated code. Cultural deprivation theorists argue that parent’s attitudes affect the achievement of their child. Douglas found that working class parents didn’t find education very important so didn’t put much value on it.

They were less likely to visit schools or discuss their child’s progress with teachers. Leon Finest 1998 found that working class parents’ lack of interest was the main reason for their child’s underachievement, and middle lass children will be more successful as their parents are able to provide more equipment etc. For them. It is argued that working class’ lack of interest reflects their subculture, and a large section of the working class has different goals, beliefs, attitudes and values from the rest of society meaning their children fail in school.

Barry Guardsman 1970 states that the working class subculture has four different elements which work as a barrier to achievement: Fatalism, which is the belief you cannot change your status no matter how hard you try. Collectivism, which is the idea of valuing being part f a group rather than an individual. Immediate gratification, which is seeking pleasure now rather than making sacrifices to have a rewarding future. Present-time orientation, which is seeing the present as being more important than the future, so not having any long time plans.

Compensatory education is a policy which has been designed to overcome the problem of cue Trial deprivation by providing extra resources to schools and areas which are deprived. This attempts to intervene with the early solicitation process, to make sure that the children to not become culturally deprived. One main example of this is a company named ‘head start. This is a multi-billion US company which planned to enrich the deprived child’s environment to develop the learning skills for the child and ensure that they receive equal treatment.

This company included improving parenting skills, home visits by health visitors and education psychologists, also the creation of intense learning programmer for the children. More recently, Education Action Zones were introduced in the 1990, while sure start, a nationwide programmer aimed towards pre-school children was launched in 2000. The cultural deprivation theory, however has been deeply criticized. Nell Kiddies 1973, says that cultural deprivation is a myth.

She dismisses the idea that a person failing at school is due to their social background, and the fact that they may be culturally deprived. She states that a child cannot be deprived of its own culture and argues that working class children are culturally different as they don’t have as many opportunities as the middle class, and that they are not culturally deprived. She says that they fail because they have been out into the education system at a disadvantage as the middle class is more dominant and they have the opportunities to do ‘better’.

Kiddies argues that schools would recognize and build on working class culture instead of seeing it as being deficient, they should also challenge the teachers’ anti-working class prejudices. Barry Thorny and Jenny Williams 1 986 argue that the problem isn’t the child’s language but the way that the school regards it and their attitude towards it, teachers have a speech hierarchy and label the middle-class’ speech as highest, then working class.

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