The totality of learned, socially transmitted customs, knowledge, material objects, and behavior. 2. Society a. People when live in the same territory, independent of people outside their area, and participate in a common culture. 3. Ethnocentrism a. Refer to the tendency to assume that one’s culture and way of life represent the norm or are superior to all others. B. William graham Sumner 4. Subculture a. A segment of society that shares a distinctive pattern of customs, rules, and traditions that differs from the pattern of the larger society. 5. Social interaction a.

Refer to the ways in which people respond to one another, where face to face or over the telephone or on the computer. 6. Culture lag a. Refer to the period of maladjustment when the immaterial culture is still struggling to adapt to new material conditions b. William. Osborn 7. Dramatically approach a. Coffman (1959) b. People resemble performers in action 8. Master status a. A status that dominates others & determines a person’s general position in society. 9. Role strain a. Describe the difficulty that arises when the same social position imposes inflicting demands and expectations. . Role conflict describes situation of a person dealing with the challenge Of occupying two social positions 10. Achieved status a. A social position that a person attains largely through his/her own efforts 11. Norms a. Established standards of behavior maintained by a society b. Significant- shared & understood 12. Cultural shock a. Anyone who feels disoriented, uncertain out of place or even fearful when immersed in a unfamiliar culture may experience 13. Sociology a. Simply, scientific study of social behavior and human groups 14. Gender roles .

Expectations regarding the proper behavior, attitudes, and activities of males and females 15. Ascribed status a. Assigned to a person by society without regard for the person’s unique talents or characteristics I. Takes place a birth [gender, age, racial] ii. Biological in origin- social meaning 16. Microbiology a. Concentrates on large- scale phenomena or entire civilizations I. Mile deuterium’s cross-cultural study of suicides [macro-level research] 17. Symbols a. Gestures, objects, and words that form the basis of human communication I. Cross neck symbolize religious ii.

Cross over grave- everlasting life 18. Goldman noted for a. Dramatically approach 19. Druthers noted for a. Macro-level research of suicides I. Microbiology b. Anomie 20. Pigged noted for a. Cognitive theory of development I. Seniority stage ii. Operational stage iii. Concrete operational stage iv. Formal operational stage 21 . William Dubious noted for a. Black b. Conducted research that they hoped would assist in the struggle for a racially egalitarian society c. Believed that knowledge was essential in combating prejudice and achieving tolerance & justice d. 909- helped found he National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP) 22. Hubert Spencer noted for a. Adapted Darning’s evolutionary view of the “survival of the fittest” I. Arguing that it is natural that some people are rich and some are poor b. Societies structural parts work together for the purpose of preservation 23. Robert Williams noted for a. List of basic values I. Achievement, efficiency, material comfort, nationalism, equality, and the supremacy of science and reason over faith. 24. Karl Marx noted for a. Society was divided between two classes that clashed in pursuit of their won interests b.

Factory center of conflict I. Exploiters (owners of production) ii. Exploited( workers) c. Emphasized the group identifications & associations that influence an individual’s place in society I. CONTEMPORARY SOCIOLOGY. 25. Jane Addams noted for a. Concerned about the lives of immigrants in the nation’s growing cities b. Took active roles in poor urban areas as leaders of community centers known as [settlement houses] c. Expounded the famous Chicago settlement, Hull House 26. George Herbert Mead noted for a. Founder of the interactions perspective 27. Max Weber noted for a.

Taught students to employ persistent in work I. “understanding or insight” b. Cannot analyze our social behavior by the same type of objective criteria we use to measure weight or temp. I. Comprehend behavior must learn subjective meanings people attach to their actions [ how they view and explain their behavior] 28. Anomie a. Refers to the loss of direction felt in a society when social control of individual behavior has become ineffective 29. Sociological imagination a. Awareness of the relationship between and individual and the wider society today and in past I.

Key element 1 . Ability to view one’s own society as an outsider would, rather than only from the perspective of personal experiences and cultural biases. B. C. Wright Mills 30. Three views used by sociologists a. Functionalist b. Conflict c. Interactions perspectives 31 . Conflict perspective a. Assumes that social behavior is best understood in terms of tension between groups over power or the allocation of resources, including housing, money, access to services, and political representation I. Termed conflict approach with race 32. Cultural universals a.

All societies have developed certain common practices and beliefs 33. Cultural relativism a. Viewing people’s behavior from the perspective of their own culture 34. Sociobiology a. The systematic study of how biology affects human social behavior 35. Culture changes are set into motion in 3 ways a. Innovation b. Discovery c. Invention 36. Diffusion a. The process by which a cultural item spreads from group or society to society 37. Counter-culture a. Subculture conspicuously and deliberately opposes certain aspects of the larger culture 38. Language a. Foundation of every culture b.

An abstract system of word meanings & symbols for all aspects of culture 39. Mores a. Are norms deemed highly necessary to the welfare Of a society, they embody the most cherished principles of people 40. Values a. Collective conceptions of what is considered good, desirable and proper- or bad, undesirable, and improper in a culture. I. Indicate what people in a culture prefer as well as what they find important and morally right 41 . Bureau of the Census a. 59 million U. S. Residents over age 5- ID percent of the population spoke a language other than English as their primary language in 2009 42.

Colonization a. People learn the attitudes, values, and behaviors appropriate for members of a particular culture 43. Personality a. Refer to a person’s typical patterns of attitudes, needs, characteristics, and behavior I. Colonization experiences can help shape our personalities. 44. Nature versus nurture a. Clashed over importance of biological inheritance & environmental factors in human development 45. Generalized other a. Refer to the attitudes, viewpoints, and expectations of society as a whole that is child takes into account in his or her behavior 46.

The family a. Most important agent of colonization in the U. S. 47. Sociological studies a. Cooley I. Stressed the process by which we create a self b. Mead I. Focused on how the self develops as we learn to interact with others c. Coffman I. Emphasized the ways we consciously create images of ourselves for others 48. Vital agents of colonization a. School b. Peer group c. Mass media and technology 49. Prolonged ambiguous Status a. Youths, emerging adulthood, not quite adult b. People in their ass’s experience 50. Anticipatory colonization a.

Refers to processes of colonization in which a person rehearses for future sections, occupations, and social relationships 51 . Rationalization a. Refers to the process of discarding former behavior patterns and accepting new ones as part of a transition in one’s life 52. Preschoolers a. Not cared for by their parents I. 73% employed mothers depend on others to care for their children ii. 30% aren’t employed have regular care arrangements 53.

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