Sociology – Changing attitudes

Sociology – Changing attitudes

The factors most commonly related to the contemporary U. S. Ingle-parent family are changing social and cultural trends, increased rates of divorce and normality childbearing, increased employment opportunities for women, decreased employment opportunities or men (especially African-American men), and the availability of welfare benefits that enable women to set up their own households (Rodgers 1996). It has been estimated that 50 percent Of children born in recent cohorts will spend some part of their childhood With a single parent as a result of separation, divorce, or out-of-marriage births.

Changing attitudes – as shotgun marriage resulted in unstable marriage and could end up producing lone motherhood through an eventual divorce or separation, partner now changed and prefers to choose to cohabit rather than marry. Alison park have analyzed data from the British Social Attitudes Survey and found that younger age groups are much more accepting of parenthood outside marriage. C) Explain why more individuals may choose to live alone in modern industrial societies than in the past. There has been a big rise in the number of people living alone.

In 2006, almost three in ten households (6. 8 million people) contained only one person -? nearly three times the figure for 1961. The increase in separation and divorce has created more one-person households, especially among men under 65. This is because, following divorce, any hillier are more likely to live with their mother; their father is more likely to leave the family home. Functionalist sociologists such as Ronald Fletcher (1966) argue that the higher expectations people place on marriage today are a major cause of rising divorce rates.

Higher expectations make couples nowadays less willing to tolerate an unhappy marriage. As the rate of divorce is getting higher by days, people now rather to choose to live alone than having an unhappy marriage and to hold a widow status. This lead to the increase in the rate of people lives alone in modern industrial societies. Next, people may choose to live alone because they afford it. A single man in possession of a good fortune might have been ‘in want of a wife’ 200 years ago, but that no longer holds true.

According to figures from the Office for National Statistics, the number of people – especially women – living alone has doubled since the asses. Many singletons celebrate their independent Status – the term ‘freeman’ has been coined to describe single, successful career women who don’t need to rely on a man, financially or otherwise. The economic growth that came with industrialization and the rise of women’s ages meant that more people could afford to live on their own. Sue Sharpe compared the attitudes of working-class girls in London schools in the early sass’s and sass’s.

Sharpe found that the main priorities of the sass’s girls were ‘love, marriage, husbands and children’. By sass’s this had changed to ‘job, career and being able to support themselves’ with education being the main route to a good job. In 1994, Sue Sharpe found that girls were increasingly wary of marriage. They had seen adult relationships break up around them, and had seen women coping alone, in a ‘man’s world’. Girls ere more concerned with standing on their own ;o feet and were more likely to see education as a means to financial independence.

This shows that women are no longer depend on men to be the breadwinner as they already have their own life expanses and more independent nowadays. People choose to live alone nowadays as they see the high rate of people of bereavement. A significant minority of elders lives alone and do not see friends and relatives as often as they wish. Bereavement takes a toll, as elders who might have been married for many years suddenly find themselves living alone. Here a gender difference again exists.

Because women outlive men and are generally younger than their husbands, they are three times more likely than men (42% compared to 13%) to be widowed and thus much more likely to live alone. Bereavement is always a difficult experience, but because so many elders lose a spouse, it is a particular problem in their lives (Hansson & Strobe, 2007). Usually grief follows bereavement. It can last several years and, if it becomes extreme, can involve anxiety, depression, guilt, loneliness, and other problems.

Of all of these problems, loneliness is perhaps the most moon and the most difficult to overcome. This may cause people nowadays to live alone as they are aware of potential bereavement as they get Older, so they would not experience such thing later on. D) Assess the extent to which ‘traditional’ families are disappearing in modern industrial societies. Traditional family is when the condition of parents and two children live together or also claimed as nuclear family. The extinction of traditional family is caused by the increasing of acceptance of society towards the same sex household.

There is evidence of increased social acceptance of same- sex legislations in recent years. Male homosexual acts were discriminative in 1967 for consenting adults over 21 More recently the age of consent has been equalized with heterosexuals. Opinion polls show more tolerance Of homosexuality. Social policy is now beginning to treat all couples more equally, whether homosexual or heterosexual, cohabiting or married. For example, since 2002, cohabiting couples have had the same right to adopt as married couples.

Since 2004, the Civil Partnership Act has given same-sex couples similar legal rights to married couples in respect of pensions, inheritance, tenancies and property. Jeffrey Weeks (1999) argues that increased social acceptance may explain a trend in recent years towards same-sex cohabitation and stable relationships that resemble those found among heterosexuals. Weeks sees gays as creating families based on the idea of ‘friendship as kinship’, where friendships become a type of kinship network. He describes these as ‘chosen families’ and argues that they offer the same security and stability as heterosexual families.

This making traditional families disappearing as same sex household become more common. Supporting this, Kathy Weston (1992) describes same-sex botheration as ‘quasi-marriage’ and notes that many gay couples are now deciding to cohabit as stable partners. She contrasts this with the gay lifestyle of the 1 sass, which largely rejected monogamy and family life in favor of casual relationships. Others sociologists have noted the effect on same-sex relationships of a legal framework such as civil partnerships.

For example, Allan and Crow argue that, because of the absence of such a framework until recently, same-sex partners have had to negotiate their commitment and responsibilities more than married couples. This may have made same-sex legislations both more flexible and less stable than heterosexual relationships thus making normal family extinct. Furthermore, people are now has more choices in life and does not see marriage as important as before. People can now have children without getting married and have a better life without spouse.

There are other alternative besides getting married, for instance is to live alone. Many single person households may be formed as a result of divorce, separation, the break-up of a partnership involving cohabitation, or the death of a partner. Others may result from a deliberate choice to live alone. There is statistical evidence that single person household are becoming more common. This is proved by the government statistics in 1961 where 4 percent of households in Great Britain consisted of a single person under abominable age.

By 2002, this had nearly quadrupled to 15 percent. Over the same period, the proportion of households consisting of a single person over abominable age increased from 7 percent to 14 percent, although this was largely due to an ageing population and women being widowed, rather than matter of choice. Richard Brotherhood (2000) has used data from the General Household Survey o show that the proportion of people in their twenties who lived alone increased from 3 percent in 1 973 to 9 percent in 1996.

This shows that normal family is disappearing as the rate Of people live alone nowadays is increasing. However, Jon Branded(1997) believes that there are strong social pressures discouraging people from remaining single because society portrays marriage as the ideal state. He claim ‘ predominant ideologies emphasize the normality of forming intimate partnership and the abnormality of remaining single for too long. Marriage is still important to some people. One of the reasons it is still important is due to people’s religious views and cultural traditions.

Many Indians and Pakistanis, will marry as it is their tradition to get married at young age. They usually have low rates of cohabitation as they see marriage quite important within their culture and follow their traditions, sometimes having arranged marriages. Many Christians will also get married, maybe because they want to have children and only believe in having children within a marriage due to the Bible and some Christians believe getting married symbolizes your love for Jesus and God as marriage is what God teaches in the Bible.

Because of English traditions, some people still continue get married, as although it is dying out it is still a tradition to get married and due to things like governments encouraging divorce, giving things like tax allowance for married couples. This shows that traditional family is not disappearing as there are people who still believe in it and practice it because of their religion. As cohabitation is becoming trend nowadays, traditional family being forgotten. According to Patricia Morgan(1999), she sees this as part of roaring trend in which marriage is going out of fashion and the family is in serious decline.

This is because of the statistic shown according to the General Household Survey, among aged 16-59, 25 percent of non-married men and 28 percent of non-married women were cohabitation. General Household statistics on cohabitation have been collected since 1979. Between 1979 and 2001 the proportion of 18-49 years olds cohabitation has increased from 11 percent to 32 percent. There is no doubt that cohabitation has become increasingly common. This resulted in increasing Of extinction Of nuclear family.

On the other hand, Chester(1 985) argued that in most cases cohabitation is only a temporary phase because most of those who cohabit get married eventually. Others see the period of cohabitation simply as a trial marriage, and intend to get married if it proves satisfactory. Most cohabiting couples intend to and do get married if they have children. Chester concluded “in practice, only about 2 percent of single women aged between 18 and 49 are living and bearing children in “consensual unions” which may be permanent. As cohabitation will eventually lead to marriage, traditional family will not disappearing in modern industrial society.

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