Sociology is the science of society

Sociology is the science of society

Sociology is the science of society ND the social interactions taking place. It focuses attention on all kinds of social interaction involving social acts, social relationships, social organization, social structures, and social processes. The social facts it gathers include the recurrent and repetitive forms of behavior: the attitudes, beliefs, values, norms, and social institutions which make up the social order. Sociology studies not only the structure and function of social organization but also the changes which take place within it. ;It studies a wide variety of current issues and problems.

Sociologists are interested in the study of family elation, separation and divorce, ethnic relations, population problems, poverty, agrarian reforms, labor relations, social mobility, vice and crime, etc. , in the same way that social reformers, psychologists, social workers and public administrators are concerned with them; but unlike them, sociologists mainly gather objective data and do not initiate reforms. As discipline, sociology takes a neutral position, carefully avoiding bias that would affect its findings and conch scions. It views problems objectively and scientifically.

AREAS OF SOCIOLOGY 1. Social Organization – this includes the investigation of social groups, social institutions, social stratification and mobility, ethnic relations, and bureaucracy. Specialties ate the sociology Of economy, work, agriculture, industry, religion, politics, education, health and welfare, and recreation. 2. Social Psychology – this field is concerned with the study of human nature as the outcome of group life, personality formation, and collective behavior. It studies how group behavior affects the individual and vice-versa. 3.

Social change – Social organization and social disorientation – this area involves the study of change in culture and social relations and ongoing social problems. It covers such areas as colonization, personal pathologies, delinquency and crime, family conflicts, population problems, religious problems, educational issues, underemployment and unemployment, poverty, civil liberties and subversion, political process, competition, reform and revolution, ethnic strife, health and welfare problems, mass communication, the impact of natural disasters, and war. 4.

Human Ecology – this is an area which is currently catching world awareness although it is one of the oldest fields in American sociology. It studies the behavior of a given population and its relationship to the group’s social institutions. These studies have shown, for example, the incidence of mental illness, alcohol and drug abuse, crime and prostitution in urban and blighted areas, and the exploitation as well as the preservation of natural resources. 5. Population studies – this field is concerned with population count, composition, change, and quality as they influence the economic, political, and social systems, and vice versa. . Sociological theory and research this field is concerned with the discovery’, development, and replication f research tools that will test the applicability and usefulness of the principles of group life as basis for the regulation of the social environment. 7. Applied sociology -? the findings of pure sociological research may be applied to such various fields as marriage and family counseling child development, juvenile delinquency, criminology, penology, social work, education, communication, propaganda, industrial relations, marketing, mental health, ethnic relations, mass media, and environmental preservation.

HISTORY OF SCIENTIFIC SOCIOLOGY 1. Augusta comet (1718 – 1857), a native f southern France, was the son of a government worker. His studies in Paris focused on mathematics and the natural sciences. He was expelled for joining a rebellion against the school’s administration before finishing his course. Comet was greatly influence by Saint-Simony’s ideas, a precursor of a Marxist version of socialism, a system where the means of production and industry are owned by the people. When Comet was accused of plagiarism, which he denied, Comet’s relationship with Saint-Simon ended. 2.

Karl Marx (1818- 1883), a native of Germany, descended from a lineage of rabbis. Although he went to college with he intention of practicing law, he shifted to philosophy after involvement with a radical anti-religious group. He wrote for a radical publication several articles on inhumane social conditions which aroused the attention of government officials who opposed his views. He eventually lost his job because of his writings. He went to Paris, met leading radical intellectuals, and completely converted to socialism. 3. Herbert Spencer (1 820 – 1 903), the son of a school teacher, was born in England.

His education consisted mainly of mathematics and the natural sciences. He shifted jobs from that of a railway engine inner o a draftsman, and eventually a journalist and writer. He was mainly concerned with the evolutionary nature of changes in social structure and social institutions. He argued that human societies go through an evolutionary process like the process Darwin described in his Theory of natural selection and coined the concept “survival of the fittest. ” He espoused the belief that human societies evolved according to the principles of natural laws.

Societies that adapt to their surroundings and can compete will survive; those that do not will meet difficulties and perish. 4. Mile Druthers (1858 – 1917) was he first French academic sociologist to be conferred by the University of Paris the first doctor’s degree in sociology in 1892, and 6 years later, the first to hold a chair in sociology. He taught and became a prolific writer and critic. 5. Max Weber (1 864 – 1920), a native of Germany , was the son of a wealthy German politician. His studies were in law and economics at the University of Heidelberg where he obtained his doctorate at the age of twenty-five.

He wrote significant books, best known among which are The Protestant Ethic and the Spirit Of Capitalism, The Sociology of Hinduism and Buddhism, Theory of Social and Economic Organization, and Methodology of the Social Sciences. Webber works dwelt on the significance of subjective meanings people give to their interactions with others. The Evolutionary Theory Evolutionary theory purposes that societies, like biological organisms, develop through phases Of increasing complexity and, as ecologists point out, are independent with their environments.

Along with their other early theorists, Spencer argued that evolution was progressive and that natural selection resulted in the survival of the fittest, enabling strong societies to survive and the weak ones to perish. 2. Structural Functional Theory Druthers, Weber, Cooley, Thomas and Parent were the early advocates of early structural functionalism although Parsons and Matron are credited for further expounding on the theory. Other proponents are A. R. Radcliff-Brown, Marion Levy, and Robert Bales. Structural functionalism has otherwise been referred to as the social system theory, equilibrium theory, or functionalism. . Conflict Theory Marks works initiated the conflict theory shared by recent scholars, C. Wright Mills, Lewis Corer, and Ralph Tetrahedron, ho proposed that society can best be studied through conflict and power struggle. Marx maintained that history was a series of class struggle between the owners of production and workers, the dominant and the dominated, the powerful and the powerless and that the structure of society was determined by economic organization, and ownership of property, in which personal beliefs, cultural values, religious dogmas, institutional organization and class hierarchy were reflected.

Inequalities in the economic system would bring about revolutionary class conflict when the exploited classes realize their resent inferior status and rebel against the dominant property owners and employers. 4. Symbolic Interaction Theory. George Herbert Mead, theorized that humans are set apart from animals because of their ability to use language and to create and acquire social institutions, societies, and cultures. 5. Exchange Theory The exchange theory has economic, anthropological, psychological and sociological underpinnings.

Is basic orientation is that life is a continual occurrence of rewards and costs exchanges. SOCIOLOGICAL INQUIRY Sociological inquiry, like any scientific activity, is like playing a game. It has goals o achieve, rules to follow, and strategies to work out in order to obtain a high probability of success . It involves participants – the players and the spectators. The players – the scientists, their assistants, and other workers – play as a team to yield results. The spectators, either interested or disinterested, appreciative or inappreciative, benefited or unfitted, are the recipients of the results.

It is also the systematic analysis of the motivations and behavior of individuals within groups, the study of social groups as a whole and of such institutions as the branches of government, the church, a profession, trade union, a hospital, or recreational unit.

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