Favored Positivism

Favored Positivism

Systematic investigation of behavior needed to improve society, (Sociology). – a way of understanding based on science: research methods & statistics. **Asked: “What holds society together? ” (Structure) & “Why is there change in society? ‘ (Social dynamic/ process) Mile Druthers- (1858-1957) French. Behavior must be understood within larger social context. Goal was to recognize sociology as an academic discipline in universities. Anomie: loss of direction felt in society when social control of individual becomes ineffective. No structure.

Egg: Crime Suicide- major theme for Druthers. Studied suicide rates & discovered social factors hat contribute to suicide. Key factor in suicide is social integration- the degree to which Pl are tied to their social groups ** Those w/ weaker ties are most likely to commit suicide. Society has an influence on social structure Egoistic suicide- so connected to status that when status is pulled from them, they commit suicide. Altruistic suicide- sacrificing yourself for others Karl Marx- (1818-1883) Revolutionary’ beliefs, Marxism. Stated that the engine of human history is class conflict.

Strong conflict between the Bourgeoisie (those who owned property) & Proletariat (working class who were exploited). Working class should overthrow existing class system. Felt that the struggle between the classes would end only when the Proletariat revolted causing a classless society. Revolution did not happen because of: development of industry changed the economy, raised the standard of living, and creation of unions. Max Weber- (1864-1920) to comprehend behavior, one must learn subjective (looking at a situation from a person’s perspective) meaning people attach to actions.

Persistent: understanding; insight. Empathy Ideal Type: construct for evaluating specific cases **Did not believe economics was the force of social change. Religion is key, found that Protestant beliefs led to growth of capitalism. Protestant Ethic: belief that working hard would please god. Harriet Martinets- (1802-1876) regarded as the first woman sociologist. In 1853 Martinets translated the work of Augusta Comet from French to English. Advocated against slavery, argued for workers rights & fought for changes in education policies against women.

Feminism: equality between men & women in politics, pay & education. WEB Du Bois- (1868-1963) first AAA to earn a doctorate at Harvard. Helped found NAACP. Wrote “The souls of Blacked folks”- Ethnographer. Died in Ghana in 1963. Double Consciousness: division of an individual’s identity into 2 or more social realities Functional Perspective- emphasizes the way parts of a society are structured to maintain it’s stability. Relatively stable patterns of social behavior (Egg: law, covet), each social structure has social functions.

Manifest Functions: institution are open, stated conscious functions that involve intended & recognized consequences of an aspect of society. Egg: NYPD- Law enforcement; Serve & protect Latent functions: unconscious or unintended function that may reflect hidden purposes of an institution. Hidden agenda Social Dysfunction: elements or processes of society that may disrupt the social system or its stability Social Conflict perspective-Assume social behavior is best understood in terms of conflict or tension between competing groups. Sees society as an arena of inequality that generates conflict & change.

Focuses on how social patterns benefits some people while hurting others. Conflict theorists are more “radical” & “activist” than functionalists. Egg: As women gained more education & earnings, their willingness to accept men domination diminished; Hereford men & women’s relationships change, women can meet their own needs outside of marriage, so U. S. Divorce rate increase. Symbolic Interaction Perspective-generalizes about everyday forms of social interaction to explain society as a whole, micro level. Humans viewed as living in a world of meaningful objects Culture.

Focuses on patterns of social interaction in specific settings. Nonverbal Communication: can include many gestures, postures & facial expression. **Applying Symbolic Interaction- Marriage & Divorce in the U. S: Early 1 ass’s Americans thought of marriage as cared lifelong commitment, divorce immoral… 1 ass’s to present; Americans do not see marriage as a life long commitment. Divorce once a symbol of failure is now seen as an indicator of freedom. Theory- set of statements that seek to explain problems, actions or behaviors. Effective theories have explanatory & predictive power.

Theories are not final statement about human behavior. Scientific Method- systematic, organized series of steps that ensures maximum objectivity (little or no bias) & consistency in researching a problem 1 . What is the Sociological Imagination? Which social theorist came up with his concept? S. L is the awareness of the relationship between an individual & the wider society, by having the ability to view one’s society as an outsider would. C. Wright Mills came up with the concept of the Sociological Imagination. 2. What is Sociology? How does this discipline differ from others?

Sociology is a scientific study of social behavior in human groups, focuses on how societies develop & change. Sociology differs from other disciplines because it takes the broad approach to helping us understand the different societies in which we live, other social sciences focus digs deeper into specific areas of our social surroundings. 3. Who is credited with being the founder of Sociology? What major historical events helped form this discipline? Augusta Comet is credited for being the founder of Sociology; the industrial revolution helped him form this discipline. . According to Mile Druthers, how does social integration affect suicide? According to Druthers, social integration affects suicide because the weaker or the stronger the ties people have to their social groups the more likely they are to commit suicide. 5. According to Marx, class conflict involves which two groups? According to Marx class conflicts involved the Bourgeoisie (those who owned property) & Proletariat (working class who were exploited). 6. According to Weber, capitalism has its roots In which religion? Why?

According to Weber capitalism had its root in Protestant religion because of the Protestant ethic: which is the belief that working hard would please god. 7. Compare and contrast the three major sociological perspectives? 8. What are the major contributions of WEB Du Bois and Harriet Martinets to the field of sociology? W. E. B Du Bois and Harriet Martinets made it possible or African Americans, and women to study the field sociology, and become sociologists who work in the field. Fought for changes in educations policies against women and people of color. 9.

What are the manifest and latent functions of state prisons? The manifest function of state prison is to incapacitate and rehabilitate criminals. The latent function of prisons is to provide jobs to residents in the area, inmates provide public services at cheaper costs, and community get more federal aid for funding. Doing Sociological Research Readings: Chapter 2; Film: The Human Behavior Experiments Variables- measurable trait or characteristics subject to change under different conditions. Vary; changes. Independent variable: variable hypothesized to cause or influence another.

Dependent variable: action depends on the influence of the independent variable Research Methods- detailed plan or method for obtaining data scientifically Experiments-artificially created situation that allows researcher to manipulate variables. *Experimental group is exposed to independent variable group is not exposed to independent variable Us reeves- study that provides sociologist with information about how people CT or think Interview: researcher obtains information through face-to-face or telephone questioning. Reduce interview bias.

Questionnaires: researcher uses printed or written form to obtain information from respondent. Quantitative Research: collects and reports primarily in numerical form. Qualitative Research: relies on what is seen in field and naturalistic settings; often focuses on small groups and communities. Observation-collecting information through direct participation and/or by closely watching a group of community Ethnography: effort to describe an entire social setting through extended systematic observation Secondary Analysis- existing sources.

Please follow and like us:
Haven’t found the essay you want?