Main causes in the underachievement of working class pupils

Main causes in the underachievement of working class pupils

In this essay I will be assessing the view that working class children ender-achieve because they are culturally deprived and the factors supporting and opposing this theory, such as elaborated and restricted speech codes and how many working class students have restricted speech code due to the uncultured nature of their home life. In addition to attitudes toward learning and education. J. W. B Douglas conducted a study into what was the main causes in the underachievement of working class pupils, he found that the home and school explained working class failure.

The lack of parental interest stimulation in the home causes an environment that is not opportune of their child learning. The two measures of parental interest used were how often the parent would visit the school and what the teachers said about the parents. This would affect the working class pupil’s motivation to do well in school because their attitude towards education is lax because of the parent’s lack of interest, this could there for lead the child to under achieve. Douglas proposed an improvement in primary school teaching and an increase nursery schools to give working class children the stimulus lacking in their home.

This may improve the attitude of working class pupils due to the fact that they would have a reference to the infant stages of education that would provide cultural capital because they are aware of the importance of education. Barry Sugarcane (1970) supports the theory, Sugarcane believes that working class subcultures for key features act as a barrier for educational achievement. Fatalism, collectivism, immediate gratification and present-time orientation. Working class students internalize the beliefs and values of the subculture through the colonization process and his results in there under-achievement.

Sugarcane argues that the middle class do not have this collectivist view on education, as an individual they look to the future and see they have to work hard not to gain the money needed to live a comfortable life style and a career that offers prospects of continuous individual achievement. On the other hand factors such as material deprivation also have an impact on the working calls ability to achieve. Lack of Housing good diet and health, and economic income are the tree main factors that would deem a person materially deprived.

Poor sousing can affect pupil’s achievement both directly and indirectly, overcrowding can make it harder for a child to study. Having less room for educational activates and disturbed sleep could lead to absences and there for would affect the child achievement because they are unable to attend school. The indirect effects of poor housing include crowded home which would mean there is a greater Rick of an accident occurring and the child m would have to take time of school healing the injury. As well as cold damp houses can cause ill heath such as asthma, these types of illnesses mean ore absences from school.

Marilyn Howard (2001 ) notes that young people from poorer homes have lower intakes of energy because they cannot afford to but the foods that have high vitamins and minerals. Poor nutrition affects heath, the lack of healthy nutritious foods can cause a weak immune system and low energy levels which result in more absences for the working class due to illness. According to Richard Wilkinson (1996) children from working class backgrounds have higher rats of hyperactivity, anxiety and conduct disorders, all of which are more likely to have a negative effect on a child’s education.

Children from poor families also have to do without certain equipment and miss out on experiences that would enhance their educational achievement. David Bull (1980) and Emily Tanner et al (2003) found that the cost such items like transport, uniforms, books etc. Placed a heavy burden on poor families. Poor children would have to make do with hand-me-downs that that are unfashionable and this may result in categorization from peers making the child unwilling to go to school because of bullying and being left out.

Pierre Broodier (1984) believed that having rower levels of cultural capital would make it hard to succeed the out middle class society. Out societies norms, values and rules for appropriate behavior are determined by the middle class. If you do not possess these attributes needed to function in society you are deemed culturally deprived and there for will not be able to achieve. Leech and Campus (2003) supported Broodier theory, and came up with the theory selection by mortgage.

Middle class families can be housed in the right catchments areas for good schools, and possess cultural capital because they are aware of this and educational UAPITA because they believe that getting a good education for their child is important. Critiques of this social theory believe that there is an inference that middle class culture is more valuable than other forms of culture, alternative cultural capital is just as important in some situations. Many social situations “require everyday’ knowledge (people without this knowledge may be unsuccessful).

Geekier (1995) conducted a study to find out whether the increase in the parental choice of school benefited one social class more than the other. She found the differences in economic and cultural capital lead to class differences in how parents can exercise their choice in secondary school their child attends. She identifies three main types of parents, privileged skilled who were mainly professional middle class graduates who used their cultural and educational capital to ensure that their child attended their chosen school.

Disconnected local choosers were mainly working class parents whose chooses were limited because of their low economic and cultural capitals (also found it difficult to understand school admonitions cause of low educational capital). Semi-skilled choosers who were mainly working class but were ambitious, lacked cultural capital and found it a little hard to understand the education market. This goes to show that working class children have less of a chance to achieve because their parents are unable to understand the education market and there for they are more likely to under achieve.

In conclusion cultural deprivation does impact of achievement, because the rules that our society lives by are determined by the middle class it makes it hard for those who do not possess these qualities undesirable and there for under achieve because they are not socialized and are not aware of this way of thinking, though on the other hand it is not just cultural deprivation that stops working class children from achieving, not being able to afford proper housing and good food affects the attendance of a child and intern their ability to achieve.

Having a low income can make a young working class student feel like an outcast because they do not possess the material goods that their peers do and this may mean a reluctance to attend school having a negative impact on their achievement.

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