Structural explanation between social inequality and health

Structural explanation between social inequality and health

 5. Conclusion 1. Introduction Health is important to us. We cannot focus or pay attention on one thing at a long period if we are sick. Most of the people just focus on biological factors. However, people tend to ignore other factors, like social factors. Social factors are more important than biological factors in determining one’s health conditions. 2 Health and disease First of all, health is often defined as “absence of disease” in the Western world. However, there are many conditions that are not diseases. A person may have a condition that affects the person’s health.

For example, there are also disabilities that are technically not diseases but the disability affects the person’s health and well-being. Therefore, there are some organizations achieved to define health. The World Health Organization (WHO) asserts that Health is “not merely the absence of disease, but a state of complete physical, mental and social well-being and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity. ” (WHO, 1948, P. 1) Dooryard’s medical Dictionary also defines health as “a state of optimal physical, mental and social well-being not merely the absence of disease. ” Doran and WHO and the ancient societies such as

Chinese subscribe to a comprehensive view of health with spiritual, social, and physical criteria. 3 Different models of health considering health There are two models of health, bio-medical model and social model, which give different explanations of causes of illness and disease. A. Bio-medical model The biomedical model focuses on biological factors, and excludes psychological, environmental, and social influences. This is the dominant way to diagnose and treat a “sick” condition in most modern Western health care. Some suggested that the model should be more holistic concepts of health re also part of medical practice (Blaster, 1990).

Most health care professionals do not first ask for a psychological or social history of a patient; instead, they tend to analyze and look for biophysical or genetic malfunctions. The focus is on objective laboratory tests rather than the subjective feelings or history of the patient. It does not account for social or psychological factors that could have a role in the illness. In this model, each illness has a cause, and once the cause is removed, the patient will be healthy again. B. Social Social model improves health and well-being which is achieved by focusing on he social and environmental factors with biological and medical factors.

It recognizes that other factors play a role in determining who becomes sick and why. It also emphasizes the way in which health care is affected by a range of social factors. The social model can provide some insights into the causes of disease and help to shape treatment. The factors include people’s: A 54-year-old man had a stroke. He has some weakness in his left leg. Stroke and weakness in his leg are considered as biological and medical factor in biomedical model. He has not returned to his work in a hospital finance department and is depressed and irritable. Those are social and environmental factors in social model. Discuss how social factor impacts on one health condition Social factors impact on health conditions. It is classified as gender, gender role, social class and division labor in gender. A. Gender Gender and sex are often used interchangeably in everyday conversation. However, the two are not the same and it is an important distinction to clarify. WHO states gender refers to the socially constructed roles, behavior, and activities and attributes that a particular society considers appropriate for men and women; and sex refers to the biological and physiological heartsickness that define men and women.

Gender also refers to culturally prescribed expectations of women and men and differs over time and space. It negotiated on a daily basis and something what we do and what we have. (Press, 201 0) Sex and gender differences are interlinked and constantly influence each other. Differences in health experience can be explained by different, gendered understandings of what way appropriate for male or female behavior which affects both lay people and medical practitioners. A. I. Gender role a. I. L . A. I. A. Masculinity Men has higher mortality rate at all ages than women because of their life Tyler, like alcohol consuming and tobacco taking(WHY? . Majority of fatal industrial injuries are amongst men. It is a lifestyle which is mentioned in social model of health and affect health condition. Men who are supposed to be able to handle the discomfort will hold off from going and wait until the situation escalates to a higher degree of severity (Jostling P, 2001 ). For example, a man who smoked coughed for three years. However, he did not go to clinic to have a check. This can result in diagnosing illnesses at later stages in life course and could result in more severe outcomes. A. I. L. A. I. B.

Femininity Throughout history, women have been perceived weaker, comparatively to men, who are in need of extra protection. Women have been in charge of domestic tasks like cooking, cleaning, nurturing the children. They are more likely to admit illness. For example, menstruation sapped their energy, making it necessary to rest; childbirth was considered a condition which requires confinement; menopause was considered a condition which required medical attention and marked the beginning of senility. (Webb, 1986) As a result of these traditional gender roles, women are more likely to seek medical help.

Evidence from research also suggests that women make more use of health services and appear to feel less healthy than men (Manhandle and Clark, 1996). It is more accepted and encouraged for a woman to be sick and to go to the doctors office to ask for help. (Seen G, George A, 2002) This initialization of the gender role could also be a contributing factor to why higher levels of morbidity in women are found. According to social model of health and from the above example, gender role plays a role in determining who becomes sick and the reason behind. Ii. Division labor in gender A man’s role has primarily been the breadwinner.

Men are expected to leave the home in order to make money to support the family. Men have higher mortality ate as they have more physical risk taking then women. For instance, building labors and soldiers have high chance to have accidents. More women have full time employment with housework. They will get high risk of reporting worse health. According to Villa S (2001), being married or having pre-school children are also associated with high Quantitative Models for policy Analysis scores only when associated with work burden. That means they have a high potential risk of psychiatric symptoms.

Based on social model of health, work environment and working condition affect a health condition of the individual in the society. B. Social class in Marxist perspective Social class, groupings of people with similar levels of wealth (assets and income), power and prestige, is consistently linked with health outcomes. Social stratification is the division of society into strata which means ranks according to certain characteristics, like income, education and heredity. According to Marxist perspective, two-class model in capitalist society is owners and non-owners of the means of production.

The higher social session is, the higher class position is. There is an unequal distribution of power and wealth in the society. Based on Marxism, the relation of the production between the capitalist class and the working class is mutual dependence but antagonistic with conflict. The reason is that there is the exploitation of the capitalist class against the working class. On the other hands, the capitalist class dominates the production process and takes most of production profit. Working class only receives a wage, a small part of profit.

Justifying capitalist class dominance within the stratification order and benefit o them, ruling class ideology misleads the working class. The economic inequality increases. Among social class conflict lead to exploitation and inequality in assess to limited resource leading working class to poverty. As mentioned, social class (hereditary) is a factor which related to health condition. According to The World Bank Organization, the most commonly used way to measure poverty is based on incomes. A person is considered poor if his or her income level falls below some minimum level necessary to meet basic needs.

Asset does affect health condition. If someone is wealthy, he or she an buy some supplement and go to private clinic when they are sick. However, the poor cannot enjoy above condition. There are two types of poverty, absolute poverty and relative poverty. A. I. L . 1 . Absolute poverty is defined as the lack of sufficient food, shelter, and clothing. That means there is large amount of people getting inadequate nutrient which weakens the immune system and increases the chance that people will catch and die from common diseases. A. I. L . 2. Relative poverty defines income or resources in relation to the average.

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