Sociologists and Psychologists

Sociologists and Psychologists

Also, colonization-?enables society reproduce itself Socially as well as Biologically From generations to generation. Sociologists and Psychologists have studied colonization for decades. They have analyzed how people become socialized. Colonization theory claims that the person we become is the result of our social environment. According to sociologists Parsons, we accept and integrate the values of the group as our own. These social values constantly surround us, but they often go unexamined. At what point in our lives does colonization take place? Parson and others argued that most colonization occurs during childhood.

Brim refers to this early colonization as Primary colonization-?parents are their children’s first teachers; they pass on values, rules, language, religious beliefs and unending list of social norms. However, colonization-?is also reciprocal because children also influence their parents. Because colonization—is an unending cycle, we are at times the “socializes” and other times the “socialized. ” Colonization continues throughout out lives . Secondary Colonization- As you experience life changing events like going to College, Beginning a career, or Getting married—new colonization occurs.

At each stage of life, we encountered new Expectations. We learn to accept and integrate them as we adapt to our social environment. Each individual operates, in part, on the basis of personality. Personality-?is a consistent pattern of Behavior, Feelings, & Beliefs in a given person. Personality include three main component 1 . Cognitive Component—consists of thought, belief, perceptions, Memory, And other intellectual capacities. 2. Emotional Component-?-consists of love, hate, envy, Sympathy, Anger, Pride, and, Other feelings 3. Behavioral Component—-consists of skills, aptitude (ability, capacity)

Competence, and, Other abilities. I. E. , Nobody is born a great mathematician People may be born with the potential to become one–?but what they actually become is primarily the product of their environment. Colonization differs greatly from Society to Society. How much of our unique human characteristics come from heredity and how much from social environment? The Nature Vs. Nurture In the 20th century, social scientists began to fight biologists—belief that “nurture,” like philosopher John Locke, proposed that our environment influences the way we Think, Feel, & Behave. “

Supporters of this idea assert that colonization molds us like pieces of clay, particularly during early childhood. Many nurture theorists believe that a social process teaches People who they are and How they fit into their world. Each of us is a product of two forces: (1) heredity, referred to a “nature,” and (2) the social environment, referred to as a Nurture>” Whereas, biology dictates our physical make-up, the social environment determines How we develop and behave. Nature VS. Nurture The belief that The belief that the way in which we Genetic& biological think, feel, & behave are results

Heredity are the of our environment. Primary causes of Human behaviors. Sociologists focus on How human beings-?-design their own culture & Transmit it from- Generation to generation through the colonization process. Most Sociologists disagree that biological principles can be used to: Explain all human behavior. According to Sociologists-?-the social environment probably has a greater effect than Heredity in terms of personality development. Children need to be surrounded by people who Care for them, Interact with them and Provide for their basic needs.

This is essential for complete growth and development. Problems Associated with Social Isolation Isolated Children Social scientists have documented cases in which children were deliberately raised in isolation circumstances. Let’s look at Children that were raised in isolation First child that they studied was name Anna Anna–?was born 1932 to an unmarried, mentally impaired woman. She was an unwanted child. Anna was kept in an attic-like room in her grand-fathers house. Her mother, worked on the farm all day & often went out at Anna just enough care to kept her alive; she received no other care.

Attempts to socialize Anna had only limited success, but in that time She was able to learn some words and phrases, although she could never speak sentences. She also learned to use building blocks, To string beads, To wash her hands and brush her teeth, TO follow directions, & To treat a doll with affection. By the time of her death at almost 1 1 she had reached the level of colonization of a child of two or three. The 2nd Child Isabella She was about six. Her grandfather had kept her and her mother—a deaf- mute—in a dark room most of the time.

When Isabella was discovered, she feared men. At first it was though that she was deaf, for she did not appear to hear the mounds around her; and her only speech was a strange croaking sound. Unlike Anna, Isabella was trained by a skilled team of doctors and psychologists. After a slow start, she went through the stages of learning that are typical of the first six years of life. By the time she was 8—she had reach a normal level of intellectual development & Was able to attend school with other children.

Her greater success seems to have been related to the fact that her mother was present during her isolation. The third child four decades later, Genie was found in 1 970 at the age of 13. She had been Locked in a bedroom alone, she was strapped down to a Child’s potty chair or Straitjacketed into a sleeping bag, since she was twenty months olds. She had been fed Baby food & Beaten with a wooden paddle when she cried. Genie had not heard the sounds of human speech Because no one talked to her & there was no Television or Radio in her home.

Genie was placed in a pediatric hospital, where the medical doctors and psychologists described her condition. At the time of her admission she was UN-socialized. She had never been toilet trained & Had no control over her urinary or Bowel functions. She was unable to chew solid food & Had the weight, Height and appearance of a child half her age. Extensive therapy was used in an attempt to: Socialize Genie & Develop her language abilities. These efforts met with limited success: In the early sass’s Genie was living in Board-and-care home for retarded adults.

Child Maltreatment However, neglect is the most frequent form of child maltreatment. When children’s basic needs–?including Emotional warmth & Sec rite, Adequate shelter, Food, Health care, Education, Clothing, & Protection-?-are not met, regardless of cause. It occurs Theories of Human Development Psychological Theories of Human Development The first Psychological Theorist that we are going to discuss is Sigmund Freud. Sigmund Freud-?-lived in the Victorian era—when biological explanations of human behavior were prevalent. It was an era of extreme sexual repression & Male dominance.

Fraud’s Theory-?was greatly influenced by these Cultural factors—as reflected in the importance he assigned to Sexual motives—in explaining behavior. Freud based his ideas on the belief that—people have: Two basic tendencies:—the urge to: Survive & The urge to procreate. According to Freud—human development occurs in three stages—that reflect different levels of the personality. . Old—is concerned with one’s own needs & desires. It tend to be self Centered. It is selfish, irrational, or anti-social, & unconscious. The id operates on the pleasure principle—the principle of having whatever feels good.

It is also the component of personality that includes—all of the individual basic biological drives & needs that demand immediate gratification. 2. Ego–?is the component of personality that representing Reason & Common sense. It is conscious rational part of the personality that Thinks, Plans, & protects Decides. Here infants discover that their desires are not always go to be met by others. . Superego—is the dimension of the self representing the standards of society. At about four or five years of age—the superego roughly begins to develop.

It contains all of the ideas about what is Right & Wrong That we learn from those close to us handout Jean Pigged –?particularly our parents. Example—see Psychologists Jean Pigged—devote his life work to examining How children think. Pigged was not interested in What children think (the content of their the inking), but rather in How children think (the mental processes they use to understand their —-observations & —-experiences). He theorized that cognitive development—that is,—the development of intellectual abilities occurs Overtime & In stages.

Although he identified particular ages for each stage, he cautioned that The age at which a child moves-?-from one stage to the next —-varies greatly from child to child. Nevertheless, he maintained, all children, regardless of the society—in which They live, pass through the Stages. He developed the four stages of Cognitive Development a) Seniority to age 2). During this period,—children understand the world only through sensory contact. B) Operational Stage– start at (2-7) at this stage-?they use their imagination in play-?-pretending to be a mail carrier—delivering invisible letters.

It is during this stage—children learn how to interact with others. C) Concrete Operational Stage (age 7-11). During this stage–?they develop the ability to see a situation from a different viewpoint besides their own. D) Formal Operational Stage (age 12 and up)– By this Stage, adolescents begin to think about the future and evaluate different courses of action. In other words, they can think hypothetically. Critics have noted several weaknesses in Pigged Approach to Cognitive development. For one thing, The theory says—little about Individual differences among children, Nor does it provide—for cultural differences.

Another Psychologists-?-Carol Gilligan indicated, Pigged did not take into account How gender affects the process of social development. Goldberg and the Stages of Moral Development According to Goldberg—human beings do not just develop Emotionally and Intellectually, They also develop morally. Goldberg classified moral reasoning into three levels 1) Pre-conventional level (age 7 to 10) at this level-?-children give little consideration to views of others. Here children’s perceptions are based on punishment and obedience. 2.

Conventional Level (age 10 thru Adulthood)-?- at this level, individuals are most concerned with How they are perceived by their peers & On how one-?conforms to rules. At this level, consequences are considered in deciding whether an action is Right or Wrong. 3. Post-conventional level—Pass Adulthood) At this level, people act on the what they consider to be in the Best interests of thermosetting or Their society. One of the major criticisms of Goldberg work came from the Psychologists Carol Gilligan—one of his former colleagues. Sailing’s’ View on Gender and Moral Development.

Her theory is based on a critical response to Kohlrabies methodology and findings. Goldberg used men in his study-?producing biased results. Carol Gilligan Suggested that Goldberg Theories were valid, only When discussing the development of male morality. TO Gilligan Goldberg conclusions were biased against women because he Only studied men initially. This, in turn, led him to Assume men and women developed moral decisions similarly—without actually studying women. Sociological Theories of Human Development: Cooley and Mead Charles H. Cooley -?-is one of the social thinkers of the development of the self.

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