Rosa Torres sociology

Rosa Torres sociology

Located in the northwestern part of South America, Columbia touches both the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans, ordering Ecuador and Peru on the south and Brazil and Venezuela on the east. Colombians population is roughly 45 million, giving it the third highest population in Latin America after Brazil and Mexico, and the second highest Spanish-speaking population in the world after Mexico. The capital city Bogota has around 8 million inhabitants. Patriotic symbols represent the war of independence and the founding fathers. Francisco Miranda, a Venezuelan, designed the national flag in 1806.

Adapting the red and yellow of the Spanish flag, Miranda divided the two colors by a stripe of blue to symbolize the ocean operating the independent country from the motherland. The upper half of the flag is yellow, symbolizing the natural riches of the country, while the lower half is divided into two equal parts of blue and red, with the red symbolizing the blood shed in the war for independence. The official language is Spanish, which was imposed during the colonial period. All Colombians speak it except some of the indigenous populations in the Amazonian basin.

In major cities, English is used, particularly by the upper class, but it is not commonly understood or spoken. Outside urban areas, Spanish is virtually the only medium of communication. Colombia takes great care to preserve the linguistic “purity” of Castling Spanish. Colombian Spanish is marked by the presence of numerous cultural expressions. In addition to Spanish, over 200 native languages and dialects are spoken. While about 90% of Colombians are Roman Catholic, a religion brought over by the colonial power Spain, people’s beliefs are often influenced by other cultures’ beliefs – from African, native and other regional spheres.

Morons and Protestants have been winning converts in recent times but still only present a small minority. Today, most Colombians wear Western-style clothing. Urban professionals from the Andean interior tend toward conservative, dark-colored suits, while farmers and members of the lower classes prefer loose skirts or pants Modern dress in Colombians coastal regions is a little more free-wheeling, with loose-fitting styles and bright colors or prints that reflect the region’s Caribbean influences. Most middle- class families eat elaborate meals that reflect Spanish and indigenous traditions.

A typical meal is identified by size rather than content, such as a eight breakfast, a substantive midday lunch, and a lighter meal in the early evening. Dinner consists of fresh fruit, homemade soup, and a main dish with meat or fish accompanied by rice and/or potatoes. Lower-income people eat a more carbohydrate-rich diet. Meals usually end with a very sweet dessert, frequently made from panel, a type of brown sugar. There are regional differences in foods. In the interior rural regions, a hearty breakfast consists of a strip of pork, rice and beans, sweet plantains, and a large steak with fried eggs. Dinner is similar, except for the eggs.

In the coastal region, the emphasis is on seafood. The typical lunch consists of rice with coconut, fried plantains, and shrimp. Colombians enjoy a variety of national and international cuisines. The economy is dependent on manufacturing and agricultural exports, but this domestic production relies on expensive imports such as tractors, power generators, and industrial machinery. Commercial agriculture stresses bananas, cut flowers, sugar, and coffee. In the world’s second leading exporter of coffee, the economy is sensitive to fluctuations in the market price. Social interaction in the upper class is generally formal and respectful.

The members of from the interior pride themselves on their good manners. Unlike their coastal counterparts, lower class individuals in the interior express mutual respect for each other and their elders; women are treated respectfully and given special attention. Personal space is highly regarded, so conversations take place at arm’s length. The violation of this space even in crowded stores and museums is considered disrespectful and hostile. Exceptions occur in crowded bus stations and on buses. Formal greetings among strangers are mandated, whereas salutations among acquaintances are informal.

Health care has improved dramatically over the last 30 years, but this has occurred mostly in upper class and middle class urban areas. The urban poor and people in remote regions have limited access to food, housing, and medical treatment. There has been a reduction in the infant mortality rate and an increase in life expectancy over the last decade. “blood deaths,” are violent criminal attacks and murders related to activity by drug cartels that primarily affect men under age forty-five. The increase in guerilla activities also has resulted in many deaths, especially in remote areas.

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