Rise of Industrial Sociology

Rise of Industrial Sociology

Land reforms were important in increasing agricultural production during this phase. The Community Development Programmer, decentralized planning and the Intensive Area Development Programmer were also initiated for regenerating Indian agriculture that had stagnated during the British period. In order to encourage the farmers to adopt better technology, incentive price policy was adopted in 1 964 and the Agricultural Price Commission was set up to advice the Government on the fixation of support prices of agricultural crops.

Despite the institutional changes and development programmer introduced by the Government during this phase, India remained dependent upon foreign countries for food to feed the rising population. The second phase in Indian agriculture started in mid ass’s with adoption of new agricultural strategy. The new agricultural strategy relies on high-yielding varieties of crops, multiple cropping, the package approach, modern farm practices and spread of irrigation facilities. The biggest achievement of this strategy has been attainment of self sufficiency in fogginess.

Agrarian reforms during this period took back seat while research, extension, input supply, credit, marketing, price support and spread of technology were the prime concern of policy makers (Raw, 1996). The next phase in Indian agriculture began in early 1 sass. This period started witnessing process of diversification which resulted into fast growth in non- fogginess output like milk, fishery, poultry, vegetables, fruits etc which accelerated growth in agricultural GAP during the ass’s (Chain, 2003).

There has been a considerable increase in subsidies and support to agriculture sector during this period while public sector spending in agriculture for infrastructure development started showing decline in real term but investment by farmers kept on moving on a rising trend (Mishear and Chain, 1995; Chain, 2001). The fourth phase of agricultural policy started after initiation of economic reform process in 1991. Economic reforms process involved deregulation, reduced government participation in economic activities, and liberalizing.

Although there is no any direct reforms for agriculture but the sector was affected indirectly by devaluation of exchange rate, liberalizing Of external trade and disproportion to industry. During this erred opening up of domestic market due to new international trade accord and WTFO was another change that affected agriculture. This raised new challenges among policymakers. Because of this, a New Agricultural Policy was launched by Indian Government in July 2000. This aims to 3 This is also known as Green Revolution strategy. RAGE 66 5 Journal Of Emerging Knowledge on Emerging Markets, Vole. 1 [2009], Art. Attain output growth rate of 4 percent per annum in agriculture sector based on efficient use of resources. It seeks to achieve this objective in a sustainable manner and with equity. This was first time when government released a national agriculture policy. The policy document discusses what ought to be done in agriculture but the subsequent step, how and when policy goals and objective would be achieved is not discussed (Chain, 2003). Therefore, it is highly desirable to prepare action plans at both centre and state level in quantity terms to implement the new policy agenda in a time bound framework.

Changing Agrarian Economy since Independence In this section we focused on how agrarian economy has changed since Independence. Keeping this view in mind this section follows land use tatter, population and agricultural workers, distribution of operational holding, and cropping pattern. Land use Pattern The basic factor in agriculture is land. A knowledge about land use pattern is vital to understand whether the utilization of land in India is at its full potential or far from its full potential. In India the classification of land has had its roots in agricultural statistics.

Till 1950, the land in India was broadly classified into five categories: (I) Area under forests; (ii) Area not available for cultivation; (iii) Uncultivated lands including current fallows; (iv) Area under rent fallows; and (v) Net area sown. But then it was realized that such a classification did not give a clear picture of the actual area under different categories of land use required for agricultural planning. Hence, a reclassification was adopted from March 1950. Under it, land in India now classified under nine different categories.

These are as: (I) forests; (ii) barren and uncultivated lands; (iii) land put to non-agricultural uses; (iv) cultivable wastes; (v) permanent pastures and other grazing lands; (vi) miscellaneous tree crops and groves not included in the net area sown; (vii) current fallows; viii) other fallows; and (ix) net sown area. Table 1 shows changes in land use pattern in India since 1950/51. The total geographical area of the country is 328726 thousand hectares in which 93 percent area is reporting area which means that the area for which record is available.

It was 88 percent in 1950/51. The net sown area has risen by 18. 44 percent from 1950/51 to 2000/01. The net sown area is only 46 percent of total reporting area that was 41 percent of total reporting area in 1950/51. The area under non agricultural use has increased from 12690 thousand hectares to 24070 thousand hectares since 1950/51. But barren and uncultivated land has fallen from 37484 thousand hectares to 17709 thousand hectares. Both the cultivable waste land and fallow land have also decreased during this period. But even today 4. Percent of total reporting area is available as a cultivable waste land and 4. 8 percent of total reporting area is fallow land. This indicates that there is scope to increase the net sown area by at least 5 to 10 percent by improving both cultivable waste land and fallow. Gross sown area was 131893 thousand hectares in 1950/51 and it has increased to 185704 thousand hectares in 2001/02. 67 10. 7885/1946-65 IX. 1007 This shows that only 11 percent of net sown area was used for more than one crop in 1950/51 and this figure increased to 31 percent in 2001/02.

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