Responses and invalidate the results

Responses and invalidate the results

Sociology studies role of the institutions in the development of the individuals: It is through sociology hat scientific study of the great social institutions and the relation of the individual to each is being made. The home and family ,the school and education, the church and religion, the State and government , industry and work *the community and association, these are institutions through which society functions. Sociology studies these institutions and their role in the development of the individual and suggests suitable measures for re- strengthening them with a view to enable them to serve the individual better.

Study of sociology is indispensable for understanding and planning of society: Society is a complex phenomenon with a multitude of intricacies. It is impossible to understand and solve its numerous problems without support of sociology. It is rightly said that we cannot understand and mend society without any knowledge of its mechanism and construction. Without the investigation carried out by sociology no real effective social planning would be possible. It helps us to determine the most efficient means for reaching the goals agreed upon.

A certain amount of knowledge about society is necessary before any social policies can be carried out. Sociology is of great importance in the solution of social problems: The present world is suffering from many problems which can be solved through scientific study of the society. It is the task of sociology to study the social problems through the methods of scientific research and to find out solution to them. The scientific study of human affairs will ultimately provide the body of knowledge and principles that will enable us to control the conditions of social life and improve them.

Sociology has drawn our attention to the intrinsic worth and dignity of man: Sociology has been instrumental in changing our attitude towards human beings. In a specialized society we are all limited as to the amount of the whole organization and culture that we can experience directly. We can hardly know the people of other areas intimately. In order to have insight into and appreciation of the motives by which others live and the conditions under which they exist a knowledge of sociology is essential.

Sociology has changed our outlook with regard to the problems of crime etc: It is through the study Of sociology that our whole outlook on various aspects of crime has change. The criminals are now treated as human beings suffering from mental deficiencies and efforts are accordingly made to abilities them as useful members of the society. Sociology has made great contribution to enrich human culture: Human culture has been made richer by the contribution of sociology. The social phenomenon is now understood in the light of scientific knowledge and enquiry.

According to Lowe most of us harbor the comfortable delusion that our way of doing things is the only sensible if not only possible one. Sociology has given us training to have rational approach to questions concerning oneself, one’s religion, customs, morals and institutions. It has further taught us to be objective, critical and expansionist. It enables man to have better understanding both of himself and of others. By comparative study of societies and groups other than his existence, his life becomes richer and fuller than it would otherwise be.

Sociology also impresses upon us the necessity of overcoming narrow personal prejudices, ambitions and class hatred. Sociology is of great importance in the solution of international problems: The progress made by physical sciences has brought the nations of the world nearer to each other. But in the social field the world has been left behind by the revolutionary progress of the science. The world is divided politically giving rise to stress and conflict. Men have failed to bring In peace. Sociology can help us in understanding the underlying causes and tensions.

The value of sociology lies in the fact that it keeps us update on modern situations: It contributes to making good citizens and finding solutions to the community problems. It adds to the knowledge of the society. It helps the individual find his relation to society. The study of social phenomena and of the ways and means of promoting what Giddiness calls social adequacy is one of the most urgent needs of the modern society. Sociology has a strong appeal to all types of mind through its direct bearing upon many of the initial problems of the present world.

Areas of Social organization is the study of the various institutions, social groups, social stratification, social mobility, bureaucracy, ethnic groups and relations, and other similar subjects such as education, politics, religion, economy and so forth. Social psychology is the study of human nature as an outcome of group life, social attitudes, collective behavior, and personality formation. It deals with group life and the individual’s traits, attitudes, beliefs as influenced y group life, and it view’; man with reference to group life.

Social change and disorientation is the study of the change in culture and social relations and the disruption that may occur in society, and it deals with the study of such current problems in society such as juvenile delinquency, criminality, drug addiction, family conflicts, divorce, population problems, and other similar subjects. Human ecology deals with the nature and behavior of a given population and its relationships to the group’s present social institutions.

For instance, studies of this kind have shown the prevalence of mental illness, airmailing, delinquencies, prostitution, and drug addiction in urban centers and other highly developed places. Population or demography is the study of population number, composition, change, and quality as they influence the economic, political, and social system. Sociological theory and method is concerned with the applicability and usefulness of the principles and theories of group life as bases for the regulation of man’s environment, and Includes theory building and testing as bases for the prediction and control of man’s social environment.

Applied sociology utilizes the findings of pure sociological search in various fields such as criminology, social work, community development, education, industrial relations, marriage, ethnic relations, family counseling, and other aspects and problems of daily life. Origin The term (“sociologist”) was first coined by the French essayist Emmanuel Joseph Sieges (1748-1836), from the Latin: socio, “companion”; and the suffix -logy, “the study of”, from Greek ?;yoga, logos, “knowledge”.

In 1838, the French-thinker Augusta Comet tweaked the meaning of the term sociology, to give it the definition that it holds today. Comet had earlier expressed his work as “social physics”, but that term had en appropriated by others, most notably a Belgian statistician, Adolph Quietly (1796-1874). Writing after the original enlightenment political philosophers of social contract, Comet hoped to unify all studies of humankind through the scientific understanding of the social realm.

His own sociological scheme was typical of the 19th century humanists; he believed all human life passed through distinct historical stages and that, if one could grasp this progress, one could prescribe the remedies for social ills. Sociology was to be the “queen science” in Comet’s schema; all basic physical sciences ad to arrive first, leading to the most fundamentally difficult science of human society itself. Comet has thus come to be viewed as the “Father of Sociology”. Augusta Comet was so impressed with his theory of positivism that he referred to it as “the great discovery of the year 1822. Comet’s system is based on the principles of knowledge, as seen in 3 states. This law states any kind of knowledge always begins in theological form. Here the knowledge can be explained by a superior supernatural power such as animism, spirits, or gods. It then passes to the metaphysical form where the knowledge is explained by abstract philosophical speculation. Finally, the knowledge becomes positive after being explained scientifically through observation, experiment, and comparison. The order of the laws was created in order of increasing difficulty.

In later life, Augusta Comet developed a ‘religion Of humanity’ to give positivist societies the unity and cohesiveness found through the traditional worship people were used to. In this new “religion” he referred to society as the “Great Being. ” Comet promoted a universal love and harmony taught through the teachings of his industrial system theory. Comet appointed himself as high priest of this religion of humanity so that he could oversee his followers, and ensure they were abiding by his practices and teachings. 2] In 1849, he proposed a calendar reform called the ‘positivist calendar’. For close associate John Stuart Mill, it was possible to distinguish between a “good Comet” (the author of the Course in Positive Philosophy) and a “bad Comet” (the author of the secular-religious system). The system was unsuccessful but met with the publication of Darning’s On the Origin of Species to influence the proliferation of various Secular Humanist organizations in the 19th century, especially wrought the work of secularists such as George Holyoke and Richard Converge.

Although Comet’s English followers, including George Eliot and Harriet Martinets, for the most part rejected the full gloomy panoply of his system, they liked the idea of a religion of humanity and his injunction to “ever pour auteur” (“live for others”, from which comes the word “altruism Karl Marx rejected the positivist sociology of Comet but was of central influence in founding structural social science. Comet’s description of the development of society is parallel to Karl Mar’s theory that communism was closing in fast on the progressing human society.

They both also agreed that communism would be the climax of human the society. Comet was at one point mentored by Henry De Saint-Simon, and both he and Marx were very influenced by his Utopian socialism approach to society. Saint-Simon devoted much of his time to the prospect that human society could be salvaged if scientists would form an international assembly and influence its course. His theory was that scientists could distract people from war and strife, by focusing their attention to such things as building canals and generally improving their societies living conditions.

This would bring multiple cultures ND societies together and prevent conflict. Saint Simon took the idea that everyone had encouraged from the Enlightenment, which was the belief in science, and spun it to be more practical and hands-on for the society. Saint- Simony’s main idea was that industrialism would create a new launch in history. He saw that people had been seeing progress as an approach for science, but he wanted them to see it as an approach to all aspects of life. Society was making a crucial change at the time since it was growing out of a declining feudalism.

This new path could provide the basis for solving all the old problems society had previously encountered. He was more concerned with the participation of man in the workforce instead of which workforce man choose. His slogan became “All men must work ” and from this, the slogan Of communism was evolved “Each according to his capacity. ” Karl Marx was concerned with class and by association class consciousness and focused his theories in these two areas. He did not come up with the theory of class, but the process in which it was created.

Marx theorized that society was an organization that thrived off of material consumption and from this obsession, class consciousness was created. Society looked down on those who had less material objects than their own class did. He was very concerned with the working class, and attempted to bring it to a higher class and level the playing field a bit for the workers. It revolted him that the nonworking, wealthy class had the power that it had. They were the only group with the time and resources to be fully informed of what the government was doing.

Marx feared, as he had previously seen, the class with the strongest resources can control the means of communication. With the communication controlled, the interests of the one class become the only ones that are heard and contributed to. In this case, the upper class would control the government’s interests and agenda. Karl Marx also saw that this class, once in control would change the economy to favor themselves and make the conditions for the other classes worse off than they had previously started.

He theorized that since the government creates private property, it has the ability to abolish and in its place substitute socialism. As the industrial economy grew, conflict would rise as the free market and the system of private property grew. With this foreseen conflict, Marx predicted revolt among the classes. Both Comet and Marx intended to develop a new scientific ideology in the wake of European acculturation. Marx, in the tradition of Hegelianism, rejected the positivist method, but in attempting to develop a science of society nevertheless became recognized as a founder of sociology later as the word gained wider meaning.

Isaiah Berlin described Marx as the “true father” of modern sociology, “in so far as anyone can claim the title. ” Sociological Research Concepts An investigator begins a research study after evolving ideas from a specific theory, which is an integrated set of statements for explaining various phenomena. Because a theory is too general to test, the investigator devises a hypothesis, or testable prediction, from the theory, and tests this instead. The results of the research study either disprove or do not disprove the hypothesis.

If disproved, the investigator cannot make predictions based on the hypothesis, and must question the accuracy of the theory. If not disproved, the scientist can make predictions based on the hypothesis. A goal of sociological research is to discover the similarities, differences, patterns, and trends Of a given population. Members Of a population who participate in a study are subjects or respondents. When the characteristics of a sample of the population are representative of the characteristics of the entire population, scientists can apply, or generalize, their findings to the entire population.

The best and most representative sample is a random sample, in which each member of a population has an equal chance of being chosen as a subject. In quantitative research, information collected from respondents (for example, a respondent’s college ranking) is converted into numbers (for example, a junior may equal three and a senior four). In qualitative research, information collected from respondents takes the arm of verbal descriptions or direct observations of events.

Although verbal descriptions and observations are useful, many scientists prefer quantitative data for purposes of analysis. To analyze data, scientists use statistics, which is a collection of mathematical procedures for describing and drawing inferences from the data. Two types of statistics are most common: inferential, used for making predictions about the population, and descriptive, used for describing the characteristics of the population and respondents. Scientists use both types of statistics to draw general conclusions about the population being studied and the sample.

A scientist who uses a questionnaire or test in a study is interested in the test’s validity, which is its capacity to measure what it purports to measure. He or she is also interested in its reliability, or capacity to provide consistent results when administered on different occasion Sociological Research: Designs and Methods Sociologists use many different designs and methods to study society and social behavior. Most sociological research involves ethnography, or ‘field work” designed to depict the characteristics of a population as fully as possible. Three popular social research designs (models) are

Cross-sectional, in which scientists study a number of individuals of different ages who have the same trait or characteristic of interest at a single time Longitudinal, in which scientists study the same individuals or society repeatedly over a specified period of time Cross-sequential, in which scientists test individuals in a cross-sectional sample more than once over a specified period of time Six of the most popular sociological research methods (procedures) are the case study, survey, observational, correlation, experimental, and cross-cultural methods, as well as working with information already available.

Case study search In case study research, an investigator studies an individual or small group of individuals with an unusual condition or situation. Case studies are typically clinical in scope. The investigator (often a clinical sociologist) sometimes uses self-report measures to acquire quantifiable data on the subject. A comprehensive case study, including a long-term follow-up, can last months or years. On the positive side, case studies obtain useful information about individuals and small groups. On the negative side, they tend to apply only to individuals with similar characteristics rather than to the general population.

The high likelihood of the investigator’s biases affecting subjects’ responses limits the generalization of this method. Survey research Involves interviewing or administering questionnaires, or written surveys, to large numbers of people. The investigator analyzes the data obtained from surveys to learn about similarities, differences, and trends. He or she then makes predictions about the population being studied. As with most research methods, survey research brings both advantages and disadvantages.

Advantages include obtaining information from a large number of respondents, conducting personal interviews at a time convenient for exponents, and acquiring data as inexpensively as possible. “Mail-in” surveys have the added advantage of ensuring anonymity and thus prompting respondents to answer questions truthfully. Disadvantages of survey research include volunteer bias, interviewer bias, and distortion. Volunteer bias occurs when a sample of volunteers is not representative of the general population. Subjects who are willing to talk about certain topics may answer surveys differently than those who are not willing to talk.

Interviewer bias occurs when an interviewer’s expectations or insignificant gestures (for example, frowning or smiling) inadvertently influence a subject’s responses one way or the other. Distortion occurs when a subject does not respond to questions honestly. Observational research Because distortion can be a serious limitation of surveys, observational research involves directly observing subjects’ reactions, either in a laboratory (called laboratory observation) or in a natural setting (called naturalistic observation).

Observational research reduces the possibility that subjects will not give totally honest accounts of the experiences, not take the study seriously, fail to remember, or feel embarrassed. Observational research has limitations, however. Subject bias is common, because volunteer subjects may not be representative of the general public. Individuals who agree to observation and monitoring may function differently than those who do not. They may also function differently in a laboratory setting than they do in other settings. Correlation research A sociologist may also conduct correlation research.

A correlation is a relationship between two variables (or “factors that change”). These factors can be characteristics, attitudes, behaviors, or events. Correlation research attempts to determine if a relationship exists between the two variables, and he degree of that relationship. A social researcher can use case studies, surveys, interviews, and observational research to discover correlations. Correlations are either positive (to +1 negative (to -?1 or nonexistent (0. 0). In a positive correlation, the values of the variables increase or decrease (“co-vary”) together.

In a negative correlation, one variable increases as the other decreases. In a nonexistent correlation, no relationship exists between the variables. People commonly confuse correlation with causation. Correlation data do not indicate cause-and-effect relationships. When a correlation exists, changes in the value of one variable reflect changes in the value of the other. The correlation does not imply that one variable causes the other, only that both variables somehow relate to one another. To study the effects that variables have on each other, an investigator must conduct an experiment.

Experimental research Attempts to determine how and why something happens. Experimental research tests the way in which an independent variable (the factor that the scientist manipulates) affects a dependent variable (the factor that the scientist observes). A number of factors can affect the outcome of any type of experimental research. One is finding samples that are random and representative of the population being studied. Another is experimenter bias, in which the researcher’s expectations about what should or should not happen in the study sway the results.

Still another is controlling for extraneous variables, such as room temperature or noise level, that may interfere with the results of the experiment. Only when the experimenter carefully controls for extraneous variables can she or he draw valid conclusions about the effects of specific variables on other variables. Cross-cultural research Sensitivity to others’ norms, folkways, values, mores, attitudes, customs, and practices necessitates knowledge of other societies and cultures. Sociologists may conduct cross-cultural research, or research designed to reveal variations across different groups of people.

Most cross-cultural research involves survey, direct observation, and participant observation methods of research. Participant observation requires that an “observer” become a member of his or her subjects’ community. An advantage of this method of research is the opportunity it provides to study what actually occurs within a immunity, and then consider that information within the political, economic, social, and religious systems of that community. Cross-cultural research demonstrates that Western cultural standards do not necessarily apply to other societies.

What may be “normal” or acceptable for one group may be “abnormal” or unacceptable for another. Research with existing data, or secondary analysis Some sociologists conduct research by using data that other social scientists have already collected. The use of publicly accessible information is known as secondary analysis, and is most common in situations in which collecting ewe data is impractical or unnecessary. Sociologists may obtain statistical data for analysis from businesses, academic institutions, and governmental agencies, to name only a few sources.

Or they may use historical or library information to generate their hypotheses. Ethics in Sociological Research Ethics are self-regulatory guidelines for making decisions and defining professions. By establishing ethical codes, professional organizations maintain the integrity of the profession, define the expected conduct of members, and protect the welfare of subjects and clients. Moreover, ethical codes give professionals direction when confronting ethical dilemmas, or confusing situations.

A case in point is a scientist’s decision whether to intentionally deceive subjects or inform them about the true risks or goals of a controversial but much-needed experiment. Many organizations, such as the American Sociological Association and the American Psychological Association, establish ethical prince peels and guidelines. The vast majority of today’s social scientists abide by their respective organizations’ ethical principles. A researcher must remain mindful of her or his ethical susceptibilities to participants.

A researcher’s primary duty is to protect the welfare of the subjects. For example, a researcher whose study requires extensive questioning of volunteers’ personal information should screen the subjects beforehand to assure that the questioning will not distress them. A researcher should also inform subjects about their expected roles in the study, the potential risks of participating, and their freedom to withdraw from the study at any time without consequences. Agreeing to participate in a study based on disclosure of this type of information constitutes informed consent.

After the study is finished, the researcher should provide subjects with complete details about the study. Providing details at the conclusion of an experiment is called debriefing. Many critics believe that no experiment justifies the intentional use Of deception, or concealing the purpose and procedures of a study from participants. Not only does deception carry the risk of psychologically harming subjects, it reduces the general publics support for research. Proponents, however, view deception as necessary when prior knowledge of a study would sway a subject’s responses and invalidate the results.

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