Marxism and Sociology

Marxism and Sociology

Industrial Revolution, where change in technique of production was taking place- small scale domestic production gave way to large scale mass production (this had profound social and cultural effect too). This very change: culturally and economically resulted in a new economic system- capitalism, which was Of great importance to Marx (not exactly positively), and his entire theory of Marxism is based on the discussion of these changes. Marx particularly talks about revolting against these changes and establishing new economic system- communism which will be primarily based on the Renville of “equality’.

Marxism theory generally is detailed analysis and interpretation of capitalist society in terms of its current functioning, its present structure and its necessary evolution. Here inequalities of the capitalist society where bourgeoisie gains in expense of proletariat is heavily critiqued. Capitalism, in so far as it is based on the private ownership of the means of production, is also based on the pursuit of profit by entrepreneurs or producers. For Marx, the analysis of capitalist economy was the analysis of individuals losing control over their own existence in a system subject to autonomous laws.

Capitalism for Marx was a system of social relations and believed that neither money nor commodities alone were sufficient to make capitalism. For a society to be capitalistic, money and commodities had to be transformed into a system of social relation and that takes place only when a) the worker is forcibly separated from means of production b) ownership is in private hands c) a system of exchange emerges which governs the buying and ailing of labors and commodities.

Marxism doctrine identifies the advent of capitalism with process called “primitive accumulation” in which feudal land was coercively transformed into private property and the direct producer was divorced from the means of production. In capitalism, the labor is separated from the means of production, work is directly under the control of the industrial capitalist and the product of labor belongs to the owner of the means of production. The basis of capitalist system is therefore the creation ND accumulation of private wealth.

The entire Marxism theory talks about this inequality in our present economic system where the upper class (the bourgeoisie) gains via the exploitation of the lower class (the proletariat). It moreover talks about how the capitalist class draw their wealth from the class of wage laborers (subject to alienation) who perform “surplus labor’ and create more value in the product they produce than they are compensated for in their ways. Initially Marxism theory on sociology was based on Mar’s retinue on the ills of the just arrived capitalist economic system and how to overcome it.

But later on, several neo-Marxist from various strand (Feminism et al) contributed to make this theory much broader. Despite this, the main talking point of Marxist philosophy remains the same, I. E. “In a society other than communist, the powerful will always try to exploit the powerless. Only in communist society equality will be restored where the condition of free development of each is the condition for the free development of all.

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