Family sociology – Marriage

Family sociology – Marriage

As modernization occurs, young people tend to move away from the villages in which they were raised in search fobs, leaving the older generations behind. They relocate to cities and meet people they probably never would have met had they stayed home. People in modernized, urbanize societies meet spouses on their own, rather than being introduced by family members, and marry and settle down in locations that are often far from their original communities.

Marriage, a foundation of family life, exists in all cultures, with some variations: Endogamy: Marriage between members of the same category, class, or group Exogamy: Marriage between members of different categories, lasses, or groups Monogamy: Marriage between one man and one woman Polygamy: Marriage between one man and more than one woman polyandry: Marriage between one woman and more than one man In some cultures, after marriage, a couple lives in the wife’s family’s household-?a practice called immateriality.

When couples live in the husband’s family’s household, the practice is called patriotically. If they go out and get their own place to live, they practice melancholia. Divorce and Remarriage Once taboo, divorce is now common in the United States. Many factors have contributed to the tenfold increase in the U. S. Ivories rate over the past century. Women have become less economically dependent on men, which means they are now able to leave unhappy marriages and support themselves. Legal standards have also relaxed, making divorce easier to obtain.

Because the divorce rate is so high, so is the rate of remarriage. U. S. Society is still coming to terms with the ramifications of blended families, those composed of children and parents from both present and past marriages. Child-Rearing Rearing children is a primary function of a family. Being in a family provides children with a sense of identity. They learn the norms and values of their societies, as well as the norms and values of the smaller groups to which they belong. By learning about their cultural heritages, children gain a sense of belonging to something larger than themselves.

By teaching children about their heritage, families insure their culture will live on. Despite the many demands of child-rearing, most adults describe raising children as an important and fulfilling duty. Nevertheless, the number of children in the households of industrialized countries has been dwindling for generations. Economic pressures have led the average U. S. Family to have only one or two children. Because both parents must often work outside the home to support the family, parents and children spend less and less time together.

There is less emphasis on discipline, and more on children’s rights. Families are more child centered, there are fewer children in a family on average, and they tend to get more attention than in the past. ; Relationships between grandparents and families Older people are living longer and are more healthy, so they can often help out with emotional or financial support or such things as babysitting etc ; Changes in the patterns of fertility Fewer babies are being born, more people are choosing voluntary helplessness and couples are choosing to wait longer before they have babies.

Think of the reasons for this. This means that the proportion of older people in the population is growing. Find out the implications of this. ; Changing trends in marriage and divorce Decline in the rate of marriage, but the number of remarriages has increased. People are getting married at a later age. Increase in cohabitation. Most people cohabit before getting married, but this is not common amongst Indian, Pakistani or Bangladesh families. More babies are born outside marriage. The number of divorces has risen sharply, although it has now beveled out.

There has been a significant increase in dual earner families There has been a significant increase in the numbers of lone parent families. Some politicians say that this has lead to a lot of children not knowing how to behave, because they are usually brought up by their mother who perhaps doesn’t cope very well, and they have no male role model to look up to. GENDER SOLICITATION Society expects different attitudes and behaviors from boys and girls. Gender colonization is the tendency for boys and girls to be socialized differently.

Boys are raised to conform to the male gender role, and girls are raised to inform to the female gender or role. A gender role is a set of behaviors, attitudes, and personality characteristics expected and encouraged Of a person based on his or her sex. Influence of Biology Experts disagree on whether differences between males and females result from innate, biological differences or from differences in the ways that boys and girls are socialized. In other words, experts disagree on whether differences between men and women are due to nature, nurture, or some combination of both.

Example: There are some significant differences between female and male brains. The language center in the male brain is usually in the dominant (usually left) hemisphere, whereas females use both hemispheres of the brain to process language. This may explain why females seem to have stronger communication skills and relish interpersonal communication more than males and why, on average, girls learn to speak and read earlier than boys. Influence of Family Every culture has different guidelines about what is appropriate for males and females, and family members may socialize babies in gendered ways without consciously following that path.

For example, in American society, the color pink is associated with girls and the color blue with boys. Even as tiny babies, boys and girls are dressed differently, according to what is considered “appropriate” for their respective sexes. Even parents who strive to achieve a less “gendered” parenting style unconsciously reinforce gender roles. Example: The toys and games parents select for children are often unconsciously intended to socialize them into the appropriate gender roles. Girls receive dolls in an attempt to socialize them into future roles as mothers.

Since women are expected to be more nurturing than men, giving a girl a doll teaches her to care for it and fosters the value of caring for others. When boys receive dolls, they are likely to be action figures designed to bring out the alleged aggressive tendencies in boys. Influence in Education As children enter the educational system, traditional expectations for boys and girls continue. In the past, much research focused on how teachers were shortchanging girls in the classroom. Teachers would focus on boys, calling on them more and challenging them.

Because boys were believed to be more analytical, teachers assumed they would excel in math and science. Teachers encouraged them to go into careers that require a lot of math and science, such as computer science or engineering. Research from the late sass, however, indicates that the current educational climate is failing boys. Boys are falling behind girls in school. The dropout rate for boys is rising. More boys are being diagnosed as learning disabled. The number of boys applying to college has declined. Some sociologists argue that current teaching methods favor girls’ learning styles.

Girls mature more quickly than boys and are able to focus and concentrate in class more easily. Example: Studies show that boys are more physically active than girls. This difference is greater when children are in elementary school. Boys may be less able to sit still during a Essen. They are often sent out of class as disruptive, which puts them behind in the schoolwork and can reinforce their problems in the classroom. What’s So Funny About Male Nurses? Meet the Parents (2000), a movie starring Ben Stiller, got laughs nationwide for presenting a main character who was a male nurse.

The fact that a male pursuing career in nursing still seems laughable shows how ingrained some gender roles still are. Influence on Career Choicely cultural expectations dictate that girls are more compassionate and nurturing than boys, then parents, teachers, and counselors will steer them toward Leeds that require patience and concern for other people, such as nursing, social work, or elementary school teaching. Though a girl who expresses a desire to become a nuclear engineer would probably no longer be explicitly discouraged, a boy with a similar goal would probably encounter more encouragement.

Example: Women working in traditionally male occupations Often hit a glass ceiling, an invisible barrier that keeps women from reaching executive positions. Men who work in traditionally female occupations, such as nursing, social work, or elementary school teaching, are often viewed as more qualified than women. These men often benefit from a glass escalator; they are paid more and promoted more quickly than their female counterparts. Family glossary Ageing population – older age groups growing as a proportion of the population.

Adolescence – is a transitional stage of physical and psychological human development, generally occurring beet,’en puberty and legal adulthood. The end of adolescence and the beginning of adulthood varies by country and by function. Even within a single nation-state or culture, there can be different ages at which an individual is considered to be (chronologically and legally) mature enough to handle certain tasks. Birth rate – number of live births per 1000 of the population, per year. Cereal image of the family – stereotypical views of the family in common advertising, nuclear with a traditional division of labor.

Conjugal roles – the marital roles of husbands and wife’s. Cohabitation – unmarried couples in a sexual relationship living together. Death rate -? number of deaths per 1000 of the population per year. The dependency ratio – the relationship between the size of the working population and the Nan-working population (e. G. Children and retired workers)). Demography -? the study of populations and their characteristics. Dispersed extended families -? family geographically separated but maintain frequent contact through visits and phone calls. Divorce rate – number Of divorces per 1000 married people.

Domestic division of labor – gender roles that men and women play in relation to housework, childcare and paid work. Domestic violence – physical, sexual and psychological abuse between those in a family-type relationship. Emigration – movement out of an area or country. Emotion work – emotional support which members of a family provide for each other e. G. Offering sympathy. Expressive role – women act as homemakers and careers e. G. Offering emotional support. Extended families – contains relatives in addition to the nuclear family, e. G. Grandparents, aunts, cousins etc.

Household – a person living alone or in a group of people who share a common residence. Family – consist of people who are related by blood or marriage. Infant mortality rate – number of deaths among babies under one per 1000 live births per year Immigration – movement into one area or country. Industrialization – the shift from an agricultural economy to one based on factory production – late 1 8th century. Instrumental role – men go out work and act as the financial breadwinner. Internal migration – movement of populations within a country. Kin – relatives based on marriage or genes.

Life expectancy – how long on average someone born in a given year can expect to live. Lone parent families – a parent without a partner living with their dependent children. Matricidal family – two or more generations of women in the same household with dependent children. Migration – the movement of people from one place to another. Monogamy – one wife and one husband. Neo-conventional family – a dual earner family in which both spouses work. Net migration -? difference between the numbers immigrating and the numbers emigrating. Norms – social rules or expectations.

Nuclear family – adult male and female (usually married) with one or more children, own or adopted. One person households (singletons) – people who live alone through choice or not. Patriarchy -? male power, domination and control. Pester Power – the ability possessed by a child to nag a parent relentlessly until the parent Currents and agrees to the child’s request Polygamy – marriage to more than one partner at the same time. Polygamy – men who have more than one wife. Polyandry – women who have more than one husband. Primary solicitation – transmitting shared norms and values (consensus) to hillier through the family.

Reconstituted (streamlines families) – families in which one or both adults in a couple bring children from a previous relationship. Same sex relationships – gay male and lesbian female couples living together in an intimate relationship. Social construction -? something defined or created by society. Social control – the means by which society tries to ensure that members behave as others expect of them. Social policy – the actions and plans of government agencies such as health and social services. Serial monogamy – a series of marriage partners/long term relationships over he life course, one at a time.

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