The four major sociological theoretical paradigms

The four major sociological theoretical paradigms

Identify the four major sociological theoretical paradigms. For each, what are the key tenets? How does each explain how society works? “Functionalist Perspectives” also known as “Structural-Functional Paradigm”- “The sociological approach that views society as a stable, orderly system. According to this perspective, a society is composed of interrelated parts, each of which serves a function and (ideally) contributes to the overall stability of the society. Societies develop social structures, or institutions that persist because they play a part in helping society survive.

These institutions include the family, education, government, religion, and the economy. If anything adverse happens to one of these institutions or parts, all other parts are affected and the system no longer functions properly. As Druthers noted, rapid social change and a more specialized division of labor produce strains in society that lead to a breakdown in these traditional institutions and may result in social problems such as an increase in crime and suicide rates. ” “Conflict Perspectives”– ‘According to conflict perspectives, groups in society are engaged in a continuous power struggle for control of scarce resources.

Conflict may take the form of politics, litigation, negotiations, or family discussions about financial matters (Kendall, 01 /2014, p. 25). “The conflict perspective is not one unified theory but rather encompasses several branches. One branch is the neo-Marxist approach, which views struggle between the classes as inevitable and as a prime source of social change. A second branch focuses on racial-ethnic inequalities and the continued exploitation of members of some racial-ethnic groups. A third branch is the feminist perspective, which focuses on gender issues (Kendall, 01/2014, p. ). “Symbolic-Interaction Perspectives”-?”Perspective based on the sociological approach that views society as the sum of the interactions of individuals and groups (Kendall, 01/2014, p. 28). “Theorists using this perspective focus on the process of interaction-?defined as immediate reciprocally oriented communication between two or more people-?and the part that symbols play in giving meaning to human communication. A symbol is anything that meaningfully represents something else (Kendall, 01 /2014, p. 28).

Post Modernism Perspective’s- “According to postmodern perspectives, existing theories have been unsuccessful in explaining social life in contemporary societies that are characterized by post industrialization, consumerism, and global communications (Kendall, 01 /2014, p. 29). “Postmodern theories are based on the assumption that the rapid social change that occurs as societies move from modern to postmodern (or postindustrial) conditions has a harmful effect on people. One evident change is the significant decline in the influence Of social institutions such as the family, religion, and education on people’s lives.

Those who live in stronger societies typically pursue individual freedom and do not want the structural constraints that are imposed by social institutions (Kendall, 01 /2014, p. 29). “Postmodern (or “postindustrial”) societies are characterized by an information explosion and an economy in which large numbers of people either provide or apply information, or they are employed in professional occupations (such as lawyers and physicians) or set-vice jobs (such as fast-food servers and health care workers). (Kendall, 01 / 2014, up. 29-30) Which paradigm do you relate to best?

How can you use this particular radium to explain your decision to attend college? The paradigm that relates to myself the best: Post Modernism Perspective-?the workforce in the U. S has shifted toward a more technological base and without the knowledge finding a job is almost impossible. Which of the four major research methods would you use, and how, to explore why adult students choose to return to college? What are the benefits and flaws of the particular method you chose for your imaginary study? I would use “Secondary Analysis of Existing Data” to explore why adults are returning to college.

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