Emergence of sociology

Emergence of sociology

The emergence of sociology began as an attempt to understand what are the determining factors of the world hanging; As has been pointed out by Richer, G. Introduction to Sociology peg. 210 Macmillan co. Of Canada 1 972), “the advancement Of the study of sociology, and its principal support, is its desire to understand modern society much better. Sociology research was developed to try and describe these changes and to predict future events. ” To understand modernity and why it is impressionable, it is important to compare current society with that of the past.

When we examine the changes in social behavior we see that these changes result from the adjustments in industrial development and religious beliefs. Society shifts with the introduction of new technologies and the availability of education throughout and thus allows us to understand what developments have occurred and why they have come about. Sociologists such as Marx, Comet and Druthers explore the development of sociology today and examine what has brought about the shifts in society. These founders of sociology look to understand why these changes came about.

Comet, Marx and Druthers became aware of the need to study society in its current form as opposed to the tendency of past philosophers n “imagining the ideal society” (Macaroni, Plumper, 1997, p. 15). One factor, which has had an immense impact on the change and development of society, was the industrial revolution. The industrial revolution began in England during the second half of the 18th century. The industrial revolution involved a transition from heavy reliance on agricultural production to reliance on the manufacture of goods. According to (A. Glidden and P.

W Sutton, Sociology seventh edition, page 72 Polity Press 201 3) “The industrial revolution radically transformed material conditions Of fife and ways of making a living forever, initially bringing with it many new social problems such as urban overcrowding, poor sanitation, disease and industrial pollution on an unprecedented scale. Social reformers looked for ways to mitigate and solve these problems, which led them to gather evidence on their extent and nature to reinforce the case for change. ” It also created new profound changes in the economics of society.

Many peasant workers left their agricultural work to go and seek work in industrial factories in the overgrowing cities. The developments during the industrial revolution resulted in a shift in remonstration, the introduction of the steam engine and as a direct result the availability of information. Industrialization bought about great wealth and improved living conditions for some but it left the large majority of workers with poor living and employment conditions. The working class was devoid of any industrial rights and the use of children in factories provided cheap labor.

The system proved that only some people were profiting whilst the greater number of people worked for longer hours and received lower wages. This led to dissatisfaction and as a result led to the labor movement and there radical movements dedicated to overthrowing the capitalist system. The industrial revolution forced many people to move into urban areas and the expansion of cities led to an increase in social problems, which attracted the attention of sociologists. Sociologist, Karl Marx was very critical of the capitalist society in his writings and was actively political to encourage its failure.

Since the early 1 9th century it is clear that the industrial revolution transformed mans living conditions and his social organization. The industrial revolution saw massive changes in society by the destruction of the feudal yester and the establishment of capitalism, which is a key area of discussion within sociology. The industrial revolution provides us with answers as to how things have changed and the influence it has had on our modern society therefore it can certainly be noted as a factor contributing to the emergence of sociology.

Sociology explores topics, which help us to understand the reasons for how our modern society is today. As pointed out by A Giddiness and p. W Sutton (Sociology seventh edition, introduction, Polity Press 201 3) ‘the task of sociology is to understand and explain an ever- changing social world. As issued in the previous paragraph, “Sociology emerged in the wake of the major transformations wrought by the industrial Revolution which had disrupted the previous type of social order and changed the human world forever. Although social change did not simply stop in the 1 9th century and we can see how our society is still developing and changing as a result of the ever-changing technological developments and industrial inventions still affecting our lives today. Another effect on our changing view is the effect religion has had on society. Many sociologists came from religious backgrounds and sought to understand the place of religion and morality in modern society. Today religion does not play as much of a prominent role in society as it did in the past.

In Ireland, for example, Catholicism has suffered an enormous loss of faith in the last 20 years as a direct result of the sexual and physical abuses carried out by people in the religious orders. These abuses opened the door for open dialogue on the morality of the religious and standards and hold they have had on society. There has been a shift in values as to the importance of practicing ones religion in the developed world as opposed to he continued stranglehold religion still has on the countries of the developed world.

It remains debatable how beneficial the process of secularists will have long term on society. Sociologists question the reasons why the changes of beliefs and the importance of religion have come about. Sociological approaches to religion have been influenced by the ideas of Marx, Druthers and Weber. Marx himself writes about religion: religion, he says is the “heart of a heartless world” – a heaven from the harshness of the daily realities of capitalism. (A. Giddiness and P. W Sutton Sociology seventh edition, page 723,Polity Press 2013).

Although it may not be widely agreed with, Marx believes that religion ‘should and will disappear’. This view can be said to be shared by the writings of Richard Adkins in his book “The God Delusion”, where is argues that “Religion is not only irrational but potentially deadly”. Druthers had quite different views towards religion as that of Marx, it is said that Druthers did not focus on the significance of religion until later on in his career, this proves that religion can not be avoided as a factor of the development of sociology.

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