Class Notes

Class Notes

The “So What and Who Cares” Factor Sociologists study what has happened, what patterns can be observed and hat social factors may have contributed to the existing social condition. The discipline of Sociology also studies who cares and who is affected by the social condition right now. Putting Sociological Life into Perspective Sociology is the systematic study of human society and social interaction.

Sociologists study societies and social interactions to develop theories about: How behavior is shaped by group life How group life is affected by individuals A society is a large social grouping that shares the same geographical territory and is subject to the same political authority and dominant cultural expectations Are We A product of Our Environment The sociological perspective says that we are a product of the colonization we receive in our culture. Family is the primary agent of colonization in this life long process.

Fields That Use Social Science Research Sociological Imagination (p. 5) The sociological imagination? – C. Wright Mill’s term for the ability to see the relationship between individual experiences and the larger society. C] (1 ) What is the structure of this particular society as a whole? D (2) Where does this society stand in human history? C] (3) What varieties of men and women now prevail in this society and in this erred? And what varieties are coming to prevail? Suicide (p. 6) As a Personal Trouble: Many people consider suicide to be the result of personal problems.

As a Public Issue: CLC Sociologist Mile Druthers related suicide to the issue Of cohesiveness in society instead of viewing it as an isolated act that could be understood by studying individual personalities or inherited tendencies. Deuterium’s Four Types of Suicide 1) Egoistic (Depression) 2) Fatalistic (Hopelessness) 3) Altruistic (Obligation to the group) 4) Anomic (Insecurity) Hypothesized Relationships Between Variables: Causal: Depression causes suicide. Inverse Causal: The lack of social integration causes suicide.

Multiple Causes: Many factors interact to cause suicide. (Tactics Change, Poverty, I Religiosity) How Much Do You Know About Suicide? In the United States, suicide occurs on the average of one every 1 7 minutes. Men are four times more likely to kill themselves than are women. Suicide is a leading cause of death among teenagers and young adults. Augusta Comet – “founder of sociology. ” Comet’s philosophy became known as positivism-? a belief that the world can best be understood through scientific inquiry.

Comet believed objective, bias-free knowledge was attainable only through he use of science rather than religion Two Dimensions of Comet’s Positivism C] Methodological C] The application of scientific knowledge to physical and social phenomena. C Social and political C] The use of such knowledge to predict the likely results of different policies so the best one could be chosen. Mile Druthers Believed the limits of human potential are socially based. One of his most important contributions was the concept of social facts.

Social facts are patterned ways of acting, thinking, and feeling that exist outside any one individual but exert social control over each person. Karl Marx Viewed history as a clash between conflicting ideas and forces. Believed class conflict produced social change and a better society. Combined ideas from philosophy, history, and social science into a new theory. Jane Addams Founded Hull House, one of the most famous settlement houses, in Chicago. One of the authors of a methodology text used by sociologists for the next forty years.

Awarded Nobel Prize for assistance to the underprivileged. W. E. B. Du Bois One of the first to note the identity conflict of being both Black and American. Pointed out that people in the U. S. Espouse values of democracy, freedom, ND equality while they accept racism and group discrimination. Theoretical Perspectives Theoretical perspectives are based on ideas about how social life is organized. The major perspectives in U. S. Sociology are: C] Functionalist CLC Conflict C] Symbolic Interactions 0 Postmodernist The Major Theoretical Perspectives (p. 5) Functionalist (Macro): Interrelated parts work to maintain stability Conflict (Macro): Social inequality; social life is a struggle for scarce resources. Symbolic Interactions (Micro): Behavior is learned in interaction with other people. Postmodernist (Macro/Micro): Post industrialization, consumerism, ND global communications bring into question assumptions about social life and the nature of reality. The Sociological Research Process Research is the process of systematically collecting information for the purpose of testing an existing theory or generating a new one.

The relationship between theory and research has been referred to as a continuous cycle. Quantitative and Qualitative Research Quantitative research focuses on data that can be measured numerically. Example: comparing rates of suicide Qualitative research focuses on interpretive description rather than statistics o analyze underlying meanings and patterns of social relationships. Qualitative Research Method 2. 3. 4. 5. Researcher begins with a general approach rather than a highly detailed plan. Researcher has to decide when the literature review and theory application should take place.

The study presents a detailed view of the topic. Access to people or other resources that can provide necessary data, is crucial. Appropriate research methods are important for acquiring useful qualitative data. Conventional Research Model 1 . Select and define the research problem. 2. Review previous research. 3. Formulate the hypothesis. 4. Develop the research design. 5. Collect and analyze the data. 6. Draw conclusions and report the findings. The Theory and Research Cycle (p. 25) Deductive: The approach that begins with a theory and uses research to test the theory.

Chapter 2. Culture Culture and Society in a Changing World Components of Culture Technology, Cultural Change, and Diversity A Global Popular Culture? Sociological Analysis of Culture Culture in the Future Culture (p. 44_45) The knowledge, language, values, customs, and material objects that are passed from person to person and from one generation to the next in a human group or society. Culture is essential for survival and communication with other people. Culture is learned through interaction, observation and imitation. Culture is fundamental for the survival of societies.

C ultra is the “essence” of human social interaction. Material culture C] Physical or tangible creations (such as clothing shelter, and art) that members of a society make, use, and share. Immaterial culture Abstract or intangible human creations of society (such as attitudes, beliefs, and values) that influence people’s behavior. Cultural Universals Examples: L] Appearance (bodily adornment, hairstyles) C] Activities (sports, dancing, games, joking) C] Social institutions (family, law, religion) C] Practices (cooking, folklore, gift giving) Symbol – Anything that meaningfully represents something else.

Language Symbols that express ideas and enable people to communicate. Values – Collective ideas about what is right or wrong and good or bad. Norms – Established rules of behavior or standards of conduct. 0 Prescriptive norms state what behavior is appropriate or acceptable. 0 Proscriptive norms state what behavior is inappropriate or unacceptable. Sapid-Wharf Hypothesis Language shapes the view of reality of its speakers. If people are able to think only through language, then language must precede thought.

Folkways Everyday customs that may be violated without serious consequences within a particular culture. In the United States, folkways include: C] using deodorant CLC brushing our teeth C] wearing appropriate clothing for a specific occasion Mores Strongly held norms with moral and ethical connotations that may not be violated without serious consequences. 0 Taboos are mores so strong that violation is considered extremely offensive and even unmentionable. D The incest taboo, which prohibits sexual relations between certain kin, is an example of a nearly universal taboo.

Please follow and like us:
Haven’t found the essay you want?