Bullying: Sociology and Socially Accepted Goals

Bullying: Sociology and Socially Accepted Goals

Five of the most well-known theories on deviance are as follows: 1. Differential-association theory Control theory Labeling theory Anomie theory Strain theory 1. Differential-association theory Edwin Sutherland coined the phrase differential association to address the issue Of how people learn deviance. According to this theory, the environment plays a major role in deciding which norms students learn to violate. People also learn their norms from various socializing agents-?parents, teachers, ministers, family, friends, co-workers, and the media.

In short, people learn criminal behavior, like other behaviors, from their interactions with others, especially in intimate groups (Surrendered 1993). The differential- association theory applies to many types of deviant behavior. For example, juvenile gangs provide an environment in which young people learn to become criminals. These gangs define themselves as countercultures and glorify violence, retaliation, and crime as means to achieving social status. Gang members learn to be deviant as they embrace and conform to their gang’s norms. 2.

Anomie Theory Anomie refers to the confusion that arises when social norms conflict or do not even exist (Morton, 1960). Robert Morton (1960) used the term anomie to describe the differences between socially accepted goals and the availability of means to achieve those goals. Morton stressed, that attaining wealth is a major goal of Americans, but not all Americans possess the means to do this, especially members of minority and disadvantaged groups. Anomie Theory & Deviance Those who find the “road to riches” closed to them experience anomie, cause an obstacle has thwarted their pursuit of a socially approved goal.

When this happens, these individuals may employ deviant behaviors to attain their goals and retaliate against society. [pick Control Theory According to Walter Reckless control theory, both inner and outer controls work against deviant tendencies. People may want-?at least some of the time-?to act in deviant ways, but most do not. They have various restraints: inner and outer. Control Theory& Deviance Travis Hirsch noted that these inner and outer restraints form a person’s self, intro, which prevents acting against social norms.

The key to developing self-control is proper colonization, especially early in childhood. Fro example, Students who lack this self-control, then, may grow up to commit crimes and other deviant behaviors. Internal controls Outer controls: ; Conscience police ; Values family ; Integrity friends ; Morality and religious authorities the desire to be a “good person. 3. Labeling Theory arose from the study of deviance in the late sass’s and early sass’s. EL theory is concerned with the meanings people derive from one another; abeles, symbols, actions, and reactions.

This theory holds that behave deviant only when society labels them as deviant. A person becomes the thing they are described as being. Labeling Theory & Deviance Although, students from both groups committed crimes, the students f respectable families were perceived to be “good” because of their polity behavior. Those from the other group are seen as “bad” because of the insolent behavior (which was attributed to their lower-class background 4. Strain Theory, Delinquency, and Street Gangs

The Strain Theory attempts to explain how factors such as poverty, homelessness, lack of parenting and lack of opportunity are a major contributor to crime and the forming of delinquent subcultures such as in schools. ; Delinquency is defined as failure to do what law or duty requires (Akers, Sellers, 2009). It is a behavior that is often a result of and inopportunely in a students life. ; Hence, students who cannot 01 what they need through conventional means will use unconventional rye such as crime to obtain such necessities.

In many cases students will fir unconventional means by joining a gang. 5. Sub-cultural Theory The Sub-cultural theory emerged from the work of the Chicago School gangs and developed through the symbolic interactions school into theories arguing that certain groups or subcultures in society have value ; Subcultures tech attitudes that are conducive to crime and violence. Share the common belief that people who commit crime usually share different values from the mass of law-abiding members of society-For example, some groups of criminals might develop norms that encourage criminal behavior.

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