Article Review sociology

Article Review sociology

Basically, Breaker presented the two main arguments in his lecture; religious pluralism is more intergenerational robust and more deeply institutionalized than linguistic pluralism in western liberal democracies and religious pluralism entails deeper and more divisive forms of diversity than instincts pluralism. In short, he explained the greater robustness of religious pluralism in terms of how it is being generated, reproduced and institutionalized. He believes that religious pluralism is generated from within compared to linguistic pluralism.

In this context, he stated that language change is mainly additive while religious change is often substitutive and transformation. He also mentioned that religious pluralism is more easily reproduced because it is fluid especially in the USA, it requires no state apparatus and it also requires no particular legal regime unlike linguistic pluralism. He also argues that religious pluralism is institutionalized and legitimate as an enduring presence in liberal societies in ways that linguistic pluralism is not.

In this argument, he sums up that normative expectation, institutional framework and individual incentives come together in fostering a deeper and more robust religious than linguistic pluralism in liberal societies. He also presented the idea on religion pluralism and deep diversity that mainly involve around the issue of plasticization and prevarication. OPINIONS In relation to his statement, it is true that both religions and languages are increasingly chosen rather than given as seen in the case of most immigrants.

These two elements are used as a tool of cultural assimilation in the process of acculturation by the minorities in the dominant community. The impact of this freedom of choice however will distinguish some distinctive characteristics that might threaten the continuation of the original cultures and values Of the minority group -On the other side, this freedom Of choice might as well ease the social interactions among different ethnic groups without having to deal with any wall of boundaries. Jewish in America are the est. example of this case by which a recent study of Jewish marriage before 1840 has shown that at least one in seven colonial Jews and their immediate descendants married unconverted Christians; after that year, in the fourth and fifth generations of colonial Jewish families, intermarriage was so dominant that most of these families disappeared from the Jewish community/’ (Herbert, 2008).

Furthermore, Breaker’s opinion regarding colonization theory to support his idea on the use of language that should be more deeply and chronically politicized than language in the contemporary world is not fully relevant and to widely acceptable. Since religion is robust, it is only relevant that his idea may only apply to few parts of the world and not as a whole. Religion does not just function individually but it is also being manifested throughout the society organization. Thus, it is quite impossible to privatized religion which has become an essential part of many people’s life.

As what Breaker has also mentioned, it is true that conflicts over religion have intensified over decades. This can be seen in the conflicts between the Jewish and Muslims involving the territoriality of the holy and sacred places in Jerusalem. This shows that religion is an important element that cannot be privatized due to its robustness. Breaker’s idea on religious pluralism that is being institutionalized and legitimated as an enduring presence in liberal societies in ways that linguistic pluralism is not can be agreed on several basis.

It is a fact that, religion pluralism is more protected than linguistic pluralism at many societal levels. According to Breaker, the liberal state is expected to be neutral with respect to religion but there is no such expectation with respect to language. This can be seen in multiracial country like Malaysia. In its national principle, although the official religion is Islam but other religions are much respected and not a subject to be controlled. This differs from its linguistic pluralism whereby the Malay and English language are the standard language to be used in official practice with Malay as the official language.

Other languages such as Mandarin and Tamil are not advisable to be used in official practices. There are also some contradictions that go against Breaker’s opinion regarding language that continue to be a terrain of chronic struggle in multilingual politics worldwide. In modern political practice worldwide, the use of standardized language such as English and French has eased the multilingual conflicts and improve the understandings of multilingual society. These standardized languages are chosen based on its relevancy and how widely it is being used and understand by people in the global context.

In this aspect, there is no existence of conflicts because multilingual society is prone to agree and receive its advantages rather than its disadvantages. The advantages also include the reduction Of discrimination and prejudice among people with different native languages. English for example, is a hugely important as an international language and plays an important part even in countries where the ELK(native country of English) has historically had little influence. It is learnt as the principal foreign language in most schools in Western Europe.

It is also an essential part of the curriculum in far-flung places like Japan and South Korea, and is increasingly seen as desirable by millions of speakers in China (British Library, 2012). His argument on the fact that language conflicts have lost some of its intensity and transformation potential in recent decades is relevant and can e agreed upon. This issue can be related to how society nowadays tend to focus more on economic and political development rather than the cultural aspect. The decrease in the number of language-based nationalist is also one of the main factors that lead to this issue.

This decrease can be related with the necessity of having a language-based nationalist in a developing and independent country. There is no major issue such as the assertion for independence that can urge these linguist-based nationalist to take a proactive stance over language conflicts in this kind of county. Language inflict is also not Very much being discussed so that any potential racial and religion conflicts can be avoided. The coherence of a society strongly benefits from the existence of just one language.

Malaysia as a multilingual country used to have language conflicts during its early independence years. The outcome of this conflict have forced the government to create an education system that separated the use of the three main languages through the formation of vernacular schools (Pennant Rack 1956). However, nowadays the system is no longer use. Instead, the government has implemented an education system that prioritize the Malay language and English as the main medium of education to unify students from different background.

There is a definite agreement regarding Breaker’s statement on the fact that religion in the mid-twentieth century cannot be fully privatized and duplicities compared to language. The topic of arguments involving religious pluralism is deeper and more complicated than language pluralism. Since religion has a clear structure of authority and have a fundamental normative content, it is harder for it to be fully privatized and duplicities. The content of a religion relates to the life of its disciples almost in every aspect.

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