Advanced Educational Sociology

Advanced Educational Sociology

We arrive at the village while the men were blowing a hallucinogenic drug up their nose. One the effect of the drugs is a runny nose. The mucus is always saturated with the green powder and the Indians usually let it run freely from their nostrils…. I just sat down holding my notebook, helpless and pathetic. The whole situation was depressing and wondered why ever decided to switch from civil engineering to arthropod in the first place. [ soon ] I was covered with red pigment, the result of a dozen or so complete examinations. These examinations capped an otherwise grim day.

The Indians would blow their noses into their hands, flick as much of the mucus off that would separate in a snap of wrist, wipe the residue into their hair and then carefully examine my face, arms, legs, hair and the content of my pockets. I said [in their language], “your hands are dirty; my comments were met by the Indians in the following way: they would “clean” their hands by spitting a quantity of slimy tobacco juice into them and rub them together and then proceed with examination. If you were to list the deviant behavior of the Yeoman, what would you include? The way they appear naked in the public? SE hallucinogenic drugs?

Let mucus hang from their noses? Or the way they rub hands filled with mucus, spittle and tobacco juice over a frightened stranger who doesn’t dare to protest? Perhaps, but it isn’t this simple, for as we shall see, deviance is relative. What is Deviance? Sociologist use term Deviance to refer to any violation of norms. Refer to behavior that is banned, censured, stigmatize or penalized. Most often, it is portrayed as breaking the rule. Deviance is an alleged break Of the social norm. It is any acts that violates social expectations, elicit social disapproval and uses people to exclaim The act of nonconformity is Deviance.

Broom, Selenium and Darkroom (1930) use the term to any violation of social norm and expectations. Deviance is relative. What is deviant for one group may be acceptable to another group. Abortion, premarital sex, polygamy, and divorce do not constitute deviance in some societies, but are strongly disapproved of or punished by Christians in the Philippines. What is considered deviant may vary in time and place. For a Christian Filipino, a man who marries more than one spouse may be branded as an infidel husband, on the other hand, a Muslim Filipino can array more than one wife as long as He is capable of supporting all of them.

What is Deviant Behavior? Despite the general tendency of the colonization process mechanisms of social control to enforce conformity, there are instances of variations, disregard for, defiance of, nonconformity or flaunting of the social norms or established standards of the group. Such types of behavior are considered deviant because they stray from the accepted norms, beliefs, or values of the group. The expression of radical or unusual political or religious beliefs is considered as deviant. To sociologists, deviance is a function of the pigment f a particular group who observes the behavior (Sullivan, 2001 : 155).

Examples of Deviant Behavior ; Cheating in the class ; Crimes ; Abortion ; Pre-Marital Sex Competing Explanation of Deviant Behavior Sociobiology Explanation States that deviant behavior stems from one’s physical or Biological makeup. Cesar Limbos (1991), an Italian Doctor and Criminologist, Held that some people are born criminals and have abnormally large Jaws, high cheekbones, good eyesight and insensibility to pain. Some biologist hold that deviant IS a result of aberrant genetic Traits, as in the cases such as: Homosexuality

Criminality Mental Illness Psychological Explanation Stresses that deviant behavior is a result of personality disorder or maladjustment that develops during childhood brought about by inner conflicts or by the inability to control one’s behavior in an orderly way. Some Psychologist view deviant behavior as a form of aggression against others or against a society because of frustration. Sociologists accept the role of personality and psychological processes as causing deviance, but they also stress the role of culture, social structures and social interaction in causing deviant behavior.

Sociological Explanation Functionalist Perspective Stress that the rapid social changes in norms, values and life-style increases the opportunities for deviant behavior like drug use, crime and mental illness Conflict-Theory Perspective Focuses on the heterogeneous nature of society and the differential distribution of political and social power. A struggle occurs benzene social classes and between the powerful and less powerful groups. Symbolic-Interactions Perspective Focuses on the importance or definition, labels and the social meanings associated with the deviant act.

If the experience is defined as pleasurable by he actor, the deviant act is repeated until the person eventually earns the deviant label. Feminist Perspective There are three schools of thought on the issue namely: 1 . Liberal – deviance is a rational response to gender discrimination experienced in marriage, the workplace and interpersonal relations. 2. Radical Feminists – attribute deviance to patriarchy, defined as male dominance over women. Example: In prostitution, it is accepted for a man to pay for sex, but it is improper for a woman to do so. . Socialist Feminists – holds that in capitalistic and patriarchal societies omen receive low wages. They have few resources so they resort to prostitution or shoplifting to earn a higher income or acquire a product they desire. While it is generally believed that social deviation is bad by nature, this is not always so. Social deviation also performs some positive functions. Social deviance makes people aware Of the possible dangers emanating from such deviation. Types of Deviation 1.

Primary and secondary deviation a) Primary deviation refers to the behavior of the individual which is disagreement with the prescribed norms but is tolerated by others or is successfully concealed from others (Cement, 1978). Examples of primary deviations are cases of students cheating in examinations, indiscriminate throwing of garbage in a “no littering’ area or refusal to declare one’s whole annual income for tax purposes. B) Secondary deviation refers to the labeled act of deviation when an individual who, throughout his life, was a conformist, committed an act of killing as a defense of his life, may be branded as a criminal.

Examples of secondary deviants are prostitutes who find difficulty in returning to the society mainstream. 2. Individual and group deviation ) Individual deviation refers to the act of deviation committed by a person against the norm of his norm of his own group has illicit marital relations with another individual. B) Group deviations refer to the act of conforming to the norms of the group which is in disagreement of his own group or subculture. An example of this type of deviation is the street corner gang. Theories and Causes of Deviance Deviance varies by time, place, situation, and social status.

Given the wide variations in deviance, these questions may be asked: “What causes deviance? ” “Why do people violate social norms? ‘Why do people conform and obey social norms? ” Social scientists have developed a number of theories to explain deviance. Theories often reflect the disc plane from which they developed. Biological theories focus on genetic, anatomical or physiology factors. Psychological theories focus on personality, motives, aggression, frustration, or ego strength. Sociologists tend focus on the socio-cultural, organizational, environmental, and group factors.

Biological Theories of Deviance Deviance is assumed as not just a social pathology or mental illness but an unhealthy biological organism as well. This assumption may be attributed to certain defects or weaknesses of an individual physically condition. Another research on biological factors was done by the American anthropologist Ernest Hotpot in 1930. He claimed that criminals are organically inferior to “normal” people. In 1 940, William Sheldon attempted to link body type to behavior by classifying people into three categories; e. G. Endomorphism, who are soft, round, and usually fat; monochromes, who are muscular, stocky and athletic, and stepmother, who are skinny and fragile. According to him, a disproportionate percentage of criminals were found to e monochromes, but the reasons for this remained unclear. Psychological Theories Of Deviance Are often rooted In a person’s mind rather than in his body and focus on factors as personality structure, learning, goals, interests, motivations, will power, frustration, anxiety, guilt, and other psychic conditions and responses.

Sociological Theories of Deviance The sociological theories of deviance look as the socio-cultural processes and organizational structures of society characterized by a breakdown or absence of social norms and values, as in the case of uprooted people. The Anomie theory, a structural-functional theory, focuses on value conflicts between culturally prescribed goals and socially approved ways of achieving them. This theory asserts that groups in power define acts of the weaker groups as deviant in order to exploit them.

The Functions of Deviance: Structural-functional Analysis The key insight of the Structural-Functional approach is that deviance is necessary element of social organization. This point was made century ago by Mile Druthers. Deuterium’s Basic Insight In his pioneering study of deviance, Mile Druthers made the surprising statement that there IS nothing abnormal about deviance. In fact, it performs four essential functions: 1 . Deviance affirms cultural values and norms. 2. Responding to deviance clarifies moral boundaries. 3. Responding to deviance brings people together. 4.

Deviance encourages social change. Social Foundation of Deviance Deviance and Power Alexander Liaisons (1972) points out that typically the people we tend to define as deviants-?those we dismiss as “nuts” and “sluts”-?are typically those who share the trait of powerlessness. Bag ladies (not corporate polluters) and unemployed men on the street corners (not international arms dealers) carry he stigma of deviance. Social-conflict theory explains this pattern in three ways. First, all norms and especially the laws Of any society generally reflect the interests Of the rich and powerful.

Second, even if their behavior is called into question, the powerful have the resources to resist deviant labels. Third, the widespread belief that norms and laws are natural and good masks their political character. Deviance and Capitalism In the Marxist tradition, Steven Spittle (1980) argues that deviant labels are applied to people who interfere with the operation of capitalism. First, because capitalism is based on private control of property, people who threaten the property of others are prime candidate for being labeled deviant.

For example, landlords who charged poor tenants high rents and evict those who cannot pay are not considered a threat to anyone; they are simply “doing business”. Second, because capitalism depends on productive labor, people who cannot or will not work risk being labeled deviant. Third, capitalism depends on respect for authority figures, causing people who resist authority to be labeled deviant. Examples are children who skip school or talk back to parents and teachers, and adults who do not cooperate with employers or police. Fourth, anyone who directly challenges the capitalist status quo is likely to be defined as deviant.

Such has been the case with antiwar activist, radical environmentalists, and labor organizers. The capitalist system also tries to control people who don’t fit into the system. The elderly, people with mental disabilities and Robert Marten’s “retreats” represent a “costly yet relatively harmless burden” to society. Such people, claims Spittle, are subject to control by social welfare agencies. Deviance and Gender Virtually every society in the world applies stricter normative controls to women than to men. Historically, our own society has centered women’s lives around the home.

In the United States even today, women’s opportunities in the workplace, in politic, and in the military are limited. Elsewhere in the world, the constraints on women are greater still. In Saudi Arabia, women cannot vote or legally operate motor vehicles; in Iran, women who expose their hair or wear makeup in public can be whipped; and a Nigerian court recently convicted a divorce woman of bearing a child out of wedlock and enticed her to death by stoning. Social Control Human behavior is complicated and most often, unpredictable. It is this context that human behavior becomes interesting and challenging as a subject of study. The human society is never a Utopia for it has certain imperfections that it must contend with. “If societies are to survive, they must have some control mechanisms to make people conform to social norms. The maintenance of order and stability to promote equilibrium spite of difficulties and problems confronting its members is made possible through the use Of effective means Of social control. Informal and Formal Means of Social Control 1. Informal Social Control. The behavior of an individual is regulated and, to certain extent, controlled by his own society.

Basically, informal social control starts with the colonization process of the child and includes mores which are considered important and accepted without question. In the colonization process, the child is made to understand the importance of obeying the rules that guide his behavior. The family, as the oldest and basic social institution, helps the child to learn and assume different roles. When he learns to internalized the values and attitudes of the family, it would be easier for him to conform with the values and norms of a bigger society. 2. Formal Social Control.

As society becomes more complex, there is a need for a formal mechanism instituted by legitimate authorities to promote order and discipline to control the behavior of its members. Formal social control involves organized systems of specialized agencies and institutions which set up law, rules, codes, or standards of expected behavior and provides corresponding sanctions and penalties if its members do not follow them. Our contemporary social problems Social problems are parts of the price of social change. The speed of change is not illusory but is part of human experience.

It may be inferred that all problems, whether social, moral or psychological have certain elements in common. There is always an obstacle presented to a desire action or understanding a perceived difficulty not readily resolved or controlled by normal procedures, an interruption of the normal and conventional flow of things. Since orderly means may fail to solve the difficulty, a challenge is created, one of which a new or improved response is sought. 1. Drug Addiction The current social problem that has evoked action, not just on the part of the government but also of society, is the drug menace.

Drug addiction is not a new phenomenon and it is a problem not only here in the Philippines but also all over the world. Drug dependence has become a severe problem for its adverse effects upon the most precious resource – the youth. 2. The Advent of Shabby A billboard along the highways carries the text,”elf you want to live in a nightmare for the rest of your life, take shabby. ” Shabby looks very much like alum or in our local vernacular “Taws” that is sold in abundance along the sidewalks. It is crystalline in form and the active element can be any kind Of methamphetamine.

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